General Directions:
Write neatly in the spaces provided.
Answer each question as thoroughly as possible using complete sentences.
Remember to write your name and user name on every page submitted.

SECTION 1: Musical Styles (45 points)
This section should take the student approximately 10 minutes to complete.
A. Directions: Answer the following questions by choosing one musical style from the list below that best describes the style indicated. Two of the choices will not be used. 21points (3 points each)

1. Which style of music values a clear singing voice to express the simple, direct, and often patriotic lyrics?

2. Which musical style is defined by a constant groove, fractured bass lines, and a busy horn section?

3. Identify the style of music with a scale that was standardized by bending the pitch and lowering the 3rd, 5th, and 7th scale degrees.

4. Which musical style achieved a consistent, reliable sound by relying on session musicians for many hits?

5. Which musical style depends on the performer to frequently change arrangements of simple tunes?

6. Which musical style includes subgenres as diverse as punk and surf?

7. Which musical style relies heavily on complex improvisation?

B. Directions: Which style of music on the right typically uses the instrument on the left? Circle your choice. 24 points (3 points each)
This section should take the student approximately 10 minutes to complete. Correct answers are shown in red, underlined type.
1. Mandolin
Bluegrass, Bebop, Pop

2. Hammond Organ
Punk, Gospel, Bluegrass

3. Banjo
Gospel, Swing, Bluegrass

4. Pedal Steel Guitar
Country, Bluegrass, Hip-Hop

5. String Bass
Jazz, Soul, Surf Rock

6. Horns
Soul, Bluegrass, Country

7. Electric Guitar
Gospel, Rock, Bluegrass

8. Backup Voice
Motown, Bebop, Swing

Short Answer
Directions: Choose eight of the possible ten short-answer questions to answer using complete sentences. Make an "X" next to the two questions that you choose to leave blank. 40 points (5 points each)
This section should take the student approximately 25 minutes to complete.
1. Explain how the New Orleans style influenced jazz.

2. Name and briefly describe the four sections of the jazz rhythm section.
The four sections of the jazz rhythm section are:

3. Identify two basic ways that music can be used in television.

4. Name an important rural blues style.

5. What are the three main traditions of gospel music?

6. Name three styles of music that share a preference for story songs

7. Briefly describe the significance of the "Moondog Coronation Ball."

8. Identify two musical styles that rely heavily on electronic instruments.

9. Briefly describe the process of music publishing.
Four steps in music publishing:

10. Name and describe three careers in music that do not involve performance.

This section should take the student approximately five extra minutes to complete.
Directions: Answer the following questions as thoroughly as possible. Possible 10 bonus points (2 points each).
1. What was the best-selling soundtrack of all time?

2. Which artist’s music was disparagingly referred to as the “Devil’s Music”?

3. Where does Motown get its name?

4. Who sang “Midnight Train to Georgia”?

5. Who invented the clock theory?

The following is meant to serve as quick reference for each of the musical styles in social and historical context.

Jazz: Improvisation is the most important stylistic aspect. Influential styles:
Blues: use of blue notes, call and response patterns, creative expression of the black experience.
Ragtime: syncopation.
New Orleans (Dixieland): introduced group improvisation, combined European and African music.
Big Band: popularized jazz, dancing, emphasis on rhythm section. Bebop (1940s): smaller groups, less dancing, complex harmonies.
Cool jazz: simplification, developed on West Coast, larger groups.
Hard bop: combo of bebop, blues, and rhythm of early R&B, gospel.
Free jazz: unpredictable, not aligned to a theory.
Jazz fusion: mixing jazz with other styles, especially rock, funk, and R&B.
Influence of Latin America: Afro–Cuban style, bossa nova.
Smooth jazz: improvisation, R&B, elaborate studio production.
Examples of major jazz artists: Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, Duke Ellington, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis.
emerged between 1870 – 1900 (same time as emancipation).
The basic blues chord progression: I – IV – I – V7 – I.
Blues scale: lowered 3rd–, 5th–, and 7th–degrees of major scale.
12–bar blues form: I – I – I – I – IV – IV – I – I – V – V – I – I.
Call–and–response: became one person calling and responding.
12–bar blues harmonic pattern.
1920s: rural (Mississippi Delta) versus urban (Memphis) blues.
Chicago blues: poor ex–slaves migrating to North
Examples of major blues artists: Blind Lemon Jefferson, Clarence "Pine Top" Smith, Stevie Ray Vaughan.
Three main traditions: Negro spirituals, black gospel, white southern gospel (musical example: The lyrics of the spiritual called "The Gospel Train," are believed to refer to the Underground Railroad.)
Gospel piano: parallel style of voice leading, with the triad as the basic chord structure
Gospel voicing: Three parts instead of four
Examples of major gospel artists: Mahalia Jackson, Tommy Dorsey, Rev. James Cleveland.
Early soul music: combination of gospel and R&B.
Highly emotional music, often expressing pain or anguish.
16th–note guitar strumming patterns and jazzy horn section, resulting in a constant groove.
Examples of major soul artists: Ray Charles, George Clinton, Sam Cooke, Curtis Mayfield.
Motown was considered by many blacks to be a successful example of integration.
The Funk Brothers, session musicians playing on many of the hit records, helped create a consistent "Motown" sound.
Berry Gordy Jr. ensured that artist image was extremely polished.
Examples of major Motown artists: Marvin Gaye, Smokey Robinson, Diana Ross, Stevie Wonder.
Characteristic instruments: guitar, banjo, dobro, mandolin.
Preference for story songs.
Grew out of traditional Appalachian music.
Examples of major bluegrass artists: Bill Monroe and the Blue Grass Boys, Earl Scruggs, Alison Krauss, Ricky Skaggs.
Short, simple melodies with verse–chorus pattern.
Preference for story songs.
Performed differently depending on the performer.
Tradition rooted in political activism, most often associated with the "left."
Examples of major folk artists: Pete Seeger, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez.
Importance of clear, "country" voice for clear lyrics.
Preference for story songs.
Tradition rooted in patriotism, often associated with conservative values.
Characteristic instrument: pedal steel guitar.
Examples of major country artists: Willie Nelson, Johnny Cash, Garth Brooks.
Untamed vocals, emphasized backbeat by the drummer. Types of rock and roll include:
Rockabilly (early Elvis)
Surf (California style)
Psychedelic (influenced by drug use)
Progressive rock
Punk (short, simple tunes with a political or social bent): pop–punk, nu–metal
Heavy metal
Teen pop
Examples of major rock artists: Chuck Berry, Elvis, the Beatles, Pink Floyd, Michael Jackson, the Ramones, Green Day, Justin Timberlake.
Five elements of hip–hop: break dancing, beatboxing, graffiti art, DJ–ing, and MC–ing.
Rap: talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat.
Gangsta rap: also called hardcore hip–hop, focusing on inner–city problems and the lives of gangsters.
Examples of major hip–hop artists: DJ Grandmaster Flash, DJ Kool Herc, Run–DMC, the Beastie Boys, Queen Latifah.
Latin Music
The blending of three major cultures contributes to the sound of Latin music: Spanish–European song (form and harmony), African rhythms, and the music of indigenous cultures.
The clave rhythm is the essential rhythm of all Afro–Cuban music.
Panpipes give Andean music a distinctive sound.
Other styles: Salsa (Cuba) and samba (Brazil).
Examples of major Latin music artists: Ignacio Piñerio, Antonio Carlos Jobim, Max Salazar.
Three drumming styles: one drop, steppers, and rockers.
Other instruments that give reggae its characteristic sound include the rhythm guitar playing chords on the off beats (two and four in 4/4 time) and the Hammond organ.
Roots in Afro–Caribbean and American R&B music.
Examples of major reggae artists: Bob Marley, Jackie Mittoo, Lloyd Knibbs.

The following is meant to serve as quick reference for each of the musical styles in social and historical context.
1. Blues and Slavery:
The blues emerged between 1870 – 1900 (the same time as emancipation).
Three traditions: Negro spirituals, black gospel, and white gospel.
Slaves often sang hymns with secret messages to avoid suspicion by their masters.
The blues tradition continued to grow out of the oppressive conditions many blacks found themselves in even after emancipation.
The Chicago blues style originated in the music of poor ex-slaves emigrating to the North.
Blues musicians were taken advantage of by record companies who paid upfront instead of granting royalties.
Important musicians:
W.C. Handy, "Father of the Blues."
Mamie Smith: first black female vocalist to record the blues.
Blind Lemon Jefferson, voice and guitar: erratic style.
Clarence "Pine Top" Smith, originator of boogie-woogie piano.
Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, singer.

2. Folk music and social activism:
Stylistic characteristics of folk music:
Preference for story songs.
Simple, folk-based melodies and harmonies.
Informal performance style.
In the late 19th century, The Fisk Singers aligned the folk tradition with social activism by introducing America to spirituals and other black American music in a dignified way.
In the 20th century, folk protest songs and "sit-ins" were directed against many social ills, including segregation, the lack of a minimum wage, and the Vietnam War draft.
Folk music was associated with leftism, and so during the McCarthy Era many folk artists were labeled "communists." The group the Weavers was an example of a blacklisted group during this time.
Other folk artists who campaigned for social change include Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, the Almanac Singers, Bob Dylan, and Joan Baez.

3. Jazz and the Civil Rights movement:
In the 1950s, McCarthyism threatened the freedom of artistic expression.
Many jazz artists rallied for civil rights, including Charles Mingus (bassist), Archie Shepp (tenor saxophonist), as well as other "free jazz" musicians.
In 1957, Louis Armstrong (trumpeter and singer) spoke out against President Eisenhower's reaction to the challenge to segregation in Little Rock.
Nat King Cole became the first black artist to have his own national television show, but it was canceled due to lack of national support.
In 1964, the U.S. Civil Rights Act was enacted.
Lincoln Center opened in the 1960s, "legitimizing" jazz music as a serious art form.
Soul music emerged around the same time as the civil rights movement (1955 –1970)
Sam Cooke's "A Change Is Gonna Come" became an anthem for social change. Cooke's personal experience of racial discrimination was evident in his art.
James Brown wrote "Say It Loud, I'm Black and Proud" in an effort to fuel black pride.
Earth, Wind, and Fire wrote songs with inspirational lyrics, including "That's the Way of the World."
The black arts movement identified with the black power movement and was led by Amiri Baraka.
Curtis Mayfield, a pioneer of funk, wrote politically charged lyrics.
Sly and the Family Stone was the first major group with a multicultural makeup.

Question #2: A performer makes a musical mark by playing his/her instrument or singing in a special way. Throughout musical history, the way that instruments are played has radically changed. For example, would Mozart have recognized “Pine Top” Smith’s boogie-woogie piano as the same instrument that he wrote piano concerti for? Choose one performer from the list below and describe his/her impact on musical history.

Be sure to include in your discussion:
background of the musical time in which each performer lived
important events in the performer’s life
the style(s) of music each performer is best known for
if relevant, brief description of specific work(s)
Possible Choices:
Louis Armstrong (Jazz)
Gertrude "Ma" Rainey (Blues)
James Brown (Soul)
Willie Nelson (Country)
Bill Monroe (Bluegrass)
Elvis Presley (Rock)
Queen Latifah (Hip-Hop)
A musical artist of your choice
Answers will vary. Successful answers will incorporate responses to all of the bulleted points. The following is meant to serve as quick reference for each of the musicians listed as choices as viewed in social and historical context.