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Gd 10 Notes

American Revolution

American Revolution

Voltaire and the Philosophes thought that England had the best formed gov’t in the world. 

As English power began to grow, the American colonists started to resist

The French sat back and observed this interaction and took notes…

 

American Colonies Before 1763

The Colonies only existed to benefit England

Make goods that couldn’t be produced in Britain and provide markets for goods manufactured in Britain

Produced tobacco, sugar, rice

 

American Colonies Before 1763

Cheap land, religious freedom, economic opportunity (initially)

Each colony existed w/ its own assembly w/o interference

Growth of original colonies allowed settlers to dream of westward expansion

F & I War

 

American Colonies

Colonists were still under British rule

Navigation Acts – the colonies could only export certain goods to England

All goods had to pass through England first to be taxed before sold on the market

 

French Indian War

Rivalry grew between Britain and France west of the American colonies

Dispute over land leads to a 6 year war between the French and British, each with Native Americans and Colonials supporting each side

England finally defeated France and gained all French territory in America

 

Revolutionary Acts Chart

French Indian War Fallout

King George III- massive idiot!

Settlers were hacking up Indians (visa versa)

Proclamation of 1763   

 

French Indian War: Fallout

In order to make up for financial losses from the War, England imposes a series of taxes on the colonists

American Revenue Act of 1764 a.k.a. “the Sugar Act”

Doubles the cost on foreign molasses and creates a monopoly on the American sugar market for British planters

First law ever passed by Parliament specifically aimed at raising money for England in the Colonies

Revolution in Art

 

Fallout (cont.)

Currency Act is passed in April of 1764, prohibiting the American colonies from printing paper money

Beginning of “No Taxation w/o Representation”, policy of non-importation, Mass. leathersmiths begin to boycott any materials not made in Boston

 

Fallout (cont.)

Stamp Act is passed in March 1765, which called for a stamp costing from a halfpenny to 10 pounds to be placed on all printed documents from newspapers and books to legal documents like deeds and licenses... even a deck of playing cards

The revenue from these stamps was to be collected by appointed colonial "tax agents" who would be paid 300 pounds a year for their services

Stamp Act Protests

Stamp Act Protests

Samuel Adams helps found Sons of Liberty, secret resistance group:

harass customs workers, stamp agents, royal governors

Stamp Act Congress- colonies can’t be taxed without representation

Colonial merchants boycott British goods until Stamp Act repealed

Parliament repeals Stamp Act; passes Declaratory Act same day (1766)

 

Fallout (cont.)

Quartering Act passed two days after the Stamp Act required colonists to provide both shelter and food for British soldiers and their horses.

Cost money to provide service for soldiers

Just as good as a tax on the ppl

 

Fallout (cont.)

The Townshend Acts are passed in June of 1767.  These acts levy new “duties” on lead, painters' colors, glass, paper and tea...small items that the British felt could be taxed with little notice or concern in the Colonies

Also eliminated the tax on tea in England and allowed tea to be exported free of taxation. 

 

 Causes of the Am. Revolution

Both Political & Economical

Political

England’s Neglect of the colonies

Taxation w/o Representation

Limitation of individual rights

 Causes of the Am. Revolution

 

Economical

Unjust taxes

Mercantilism

Gold makes a nation strong

So, a nation must have favorable balance of trade (more gold in then going out)

Nation must regulate trade to sell more then it buys

Colonies exist for the trade benefit of England

 

 Causes of the Am. Revolution

Economical

Trade restrictions

Navigation/shipping laws forced colonists to trade mainly with English

Free enterprise

England failed to enforce laws, colonists were used to free, unrestricted trade

Economic power

Colonists were already accustomed to free trade, it was too late to regulate

Boston Massacre

 

In order to enforce these laws, British troops were deployed into the colonies (known as Red Coats or “Lobsterbacks”)

Soldiers were earning extra money by replacing workers from industries that were boycotting British goods and production

 

Boston Massacre (cont.)

Edward Garrick accused one of the soldiers of hitting him in the head with a rifle, a small group of Redcoats came to the rescue of their comrade

Met an angry mob of Boston citizens who quickly resorted to pelting the soldiers first with insults, then with snowballs, then with rocks and oyster shells

The mob continued to taunt and pelt the soldiers, without orders one of them began to fire into the crowd, 6 Bostonians were killed

 

British Version vs. Boston Version

Quick Writing Assignment…

 

Boston Tea Party

Britain eliminated all taxes except for tea

British East India Company was going bankrupt and closed off Boston Harbor to all tea imports

Colonists could only buy British Tea

Emptied over 300 chests of tea into Boston Harbor

 

B.T.P. Fallout

Enraged by act of revolt, Britain passed the Intolerable Acts

shut down Boston Harbor to all imports/exports until tea was paid off

Put British soldiers back in homes

Eliminated Colonial right to self-govern

Shut off Colonists from Canada

 

Quick Wrap-Up Activity…                     

Place the following events in Chronological order:

Boston Tea Party

Boston Massacre

Sugar Act

Navigation Act

Townshend Acts

Intolerable Acts

Stamp Acts

Quartering Acts

Currency Acts

First Continental Congress

In response to the Intolerable Acts, Colonials established the FCC in Philadelphia to meet

Decided that only the colonies could govern them

Established the Minutemen Militia

Slow military escalation towards conflict between Britain and the Colonies

Asked for King George to repeal the Intolerable Acts

 

The Real “Paul Revere”

The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Midnight Ride of…Israel Bissell?

It was actually Israel Bissell who warned the colonists of the impending British attack…rode all the way to Philadelphia

 

Battle of Lexington and Concord

First battle in Independence War

Paul Revere/Bissell  and “the Redcoats are coming!”

Small battle, but over 300 Redcoats were killed to 100 colonists

Proved to everyone that the Colonies would be a worthy opponent to the powerful British military

 

Battle of Lexington and Concord

To Concord, By the Lexington Road

Civilian militia or minutemen begin to stockpile firearms, 1775

Resistance leaders John Hancock, Samuel Adams hide in Lexington

 

The Regulars Are Coming!?

700 redcoats sent to capture leaders, destroy munitions, April 1775

Paul Revere, William Dawes, Samuel Prescott warn leaders, townspeople

Colonies hover between peace and war

 

The Second Continental Congress

Second Continental Congress meets May-June 1775 in Philadelphia:

debate independence

recognize militiamen as Continental Army

appoint George Washington commander

print paper money to pay troops

 

Battle of Bunker Hill

Major battle in which 2500 British troops and navy attacked Charlestown (1400 American colonists)

Considered a British victory, but later was a symbol of American heroics and bravery

British paid heavy toll for victory

Lost half of their forces in battle and lost high ranking general in army

 

Battle of Bunker Hill

The Olive Branch Petition

July, Congress sends Olive Branch Petition to restore harmony

George III rejects petition, orders naval blockade

 

Battle of Bunker Hill (cont.)

Americans only lost 450 troops in fight

Proved that Americans would be harder to defeat then previously thought

“Common Sense”

Thomas Paine, philosopher, wrote controversial pamphlet “Common Sense” which made the argument that it would be logical for America to break away from the English Crown

Encouraged Congress to move forward on the Declaration of Independence

 

Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson used Enlightenment principles in constructing the document

Focused on John Locke and the “social contract”

 

Declaration of Independence

Declaring Independence

Declaration, based on John Locke’s ideas, lists complaints, rights:

people have natural rights to life, liberty, property

people consent to obey a government that protects rights

people can resist or overthrow government

“All men are created equal” means free citizens are political equals

July 4, 1776 delegates adopt declaration

 

Declaration of Independence

Loyalists and Patriots [Visual]

Loyalists’ oppose independence, loyal to Crown for different reasons:

work in government, unaware of events, trust crown to protect rights

Patriots, almost half of population, support independence:

think independence will mean economic opportunity

 

Quick Reading/Writing Assignment…             

Read pg 565 in your book and tell me who should win the war and at least 3 reasons that support your theory. 

 

Forces in the War

England

Wanted to separate New England from the southern states

Well trained, well equipped, and very large numbers

$$$ to pay 30,000 German mercenaries

 

United States

No navy, little experience, lacked money, clothing, weapons, ammo and food

Received help from spiteful French (revenge from F.I. War)

War Spreads throughout the Colonies

 

Defeat in New York

·British decide to stop rebellion by isolating New England

·32,000 British soldiers and Hessians take New York, summer 1776

·Many of Washington?s recruits killed; retreat to Pennsylvania

Battle of Trenton

George Washington led a sneak attack on the day after X-mass against British and German troops in New Jersey

Surprise attack caught sleepy and hung-over Brits and Germans off guard

Major victory for Americans because they were days away from loosing the war

 

The Fight for Philadelphia

·General William Howe beats Washington at Brandywine, PA, summer 1777

·Howe takes U.S. capital, Philadelphia; Continental Congress flees

 

Victory at Saratoga

·General John Burgoyne leads British, allies south from Canada

·Burgoyne loses repeatedly to Continental Army, militia

·Surrounded at Saratoga, Burgoyne surrenders to General Horatio Gates

 

A Turning Point

·Since 1776, French secretly send weapons to Americans

·French recognize American independence, sign treaty, February 1778

·France agrees no peace until Britain recognizes U.S. independence

 

Winter at Valley Forge

·Valley Forge?site of Continental Army?s winter camp (1777?1778)

·Of 10,000 soldiers, more than 2,000 die of cold and hunger [Visual]

Colonial Life During the War

 

Financing the War

·To get money, Congress sells bonds to investors, foreign governments

·Prints paper money (Continentals), causes inflation (rising prices)

·Few U.S. munitions factories; must run arms through naval blockade

·Some officials engage in profiteering, sell scarce goods for profit

·Robert Morris, Haym Salomon use own credit to raise money, pay army

 

Colonial Life During the War

Civilians at War

·While husbands fight, women manage homes, businesses

·Many women go with troops to wash, cook, mend; some fight

·Thousands of African-American slaves escape to cities, frontier

·About 5,000 African Americans serve in Continental Army

·Most Native Americans stay out of the conflict

 

Enlightenment and Independence

Jefferson, John Adams, Ben Franklin used Enlightenment ideas to justify Independence

King was a tyrant who had broken the social contract

Dec. of Independence-> long list of abuses by the King (George III)

 

Winning the War

Training the Continental Army

·1778, Prussian captain Friedrich von Steuben goes to Valley Forge

·Trains colonists in fighting skills, field maneuvers of regular army

Lafayette and the French

·Marquis de Lafayette?aristocrat, joins Washington at Valley Forge [Visual]

·Lobbies for French troops, 1779; leads command in last years of war

 

Early British Success

Early British Success in the South

·1778, British take Savannah; royal governor reinstated in Georgia

·British armies capture Charles Town, 1780?greatest victory of war

·British commander Charles Cornwallis smashes through South Carolina

·African Americans escape Patriot owners, join British to win freedom

 

British Move South

British Losses in 1781 [Visual]

·1781, Cornwallis fights Daniel Morgan, Nathaniel Greene in Carolinas

·Weakened Cornwallis gets reinforcements, camps at Yorktown

 

Seeking Peace

·1782 peace talks include United States, Britain, France, Spain

·American negotiators: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay

·Treaty of Paris signed September 1783:

··confirms U.S. independence

··sets boundaries of new nation  [Visual]

··ignores Native American rights

··promises repayment of debts 

··no date set for British evacuation of forts in U.S.

 

British Surrender at Yorktown

Victory at Yorktown

·French army lands in Newport, Rhode Island in 1780

·Lafayette?s plan: French, Americans attack British at Yorktown

·French navy defeats British, blockades Chesapeake Bay

·American, French siege Yorktown, shell British for three weeks

·Cornwallis surrenders October 1781 [Visual]

 

Reasons Why America Won…when it totally shouldn’t have…

American motivation to fight was greater then British ->defending homeland

Overconfident British generals made too many mistakes

British could win all the battles they wanted, they were still 3000 mi. from home, and it was too expensive for the British subjects to be taxed so much

French assisted Americans to stick it to the British

 

American Patriots Activity…

Read the Biographies of Sam Adams and Patrick Henry in your American Revolution Packet and complete the following sentence…

Sam Adams (or Pat Henry) is like any movie star  because…

 

America vs. Britain (David vs. Goliath)

Complete the Following Chart…(look at pg 566)

Bill of Rights

10 additional laws added to the Constitution

Protected basic rights of freedom of speech, press, assembly and religion

Expressed optimistic view that reason and reform could prevail

 

Practice Test…

 

Even though the Battle of ____________ was technically a victory for the British, they lost over half their forces and an important commander.  The colonials were ordered to fire until they could “see the whites in their [British] eyes.”

Trenton

Bunker Hill

Lexington

Concord

 

A major reason for the colonists' victory over Britain was

superior weaponry.

a stronger motivation to fight.

military support from Italy

more experienced generals

 

“Common Sense” was written to support the American colonies from leaving the British crown based on the principles between,

tradition versus reason

reason versus theory

theory verses autonomy

theory versus reason

 

The American Revenue Act of 1764 is often referred to as the

Stamp Act

Quartering Act

Townshend Act

Sugar Act

 The Colonies Come of Age

“the awkward teen years of America”

Just for fun…

England & its Colonies

Mercantilism

English settlers export raw materials; import manufactured goods

Mercantilism—countries must get gold, silver to be self-sufficient

Favorable balance of trade means more gold coming in than going out

The Navigation Acts

Parliament—England’s legislative body

England sees colonial sales to other countries as economic threat

1651 Parliament passes Navigation Acts: laws restrict colonial trade

Tensions Emerge

Traders, particularly those in Massachusetts were opposed to the suppression of a free trade market

Begin to boycott the sale of British products in America

Massachusetts: the beginnings of the Mass-hole

Crackdown in Massachusetts

Some colonists resent Navigation Acts; still smuggle goods abroad

In 1684 King Charles revokes corporate charter; creates royal colony

The Dominion of New England

In 1685, King James creates Dominion of New England

land from southern Maine to New Jersey united into one colony

to make colony more obedient, Dominion placed under single ruler

Governor Sir Edmund Andros antagonizes Puritans, merchants

Questioned Puritan Law

Puritans send Ambassador to England to regain charter and get rid of Andros

The Glorious Revolution

King James unpopular in England: is Catholic, disrespects Parliament

Glorious Revolution—Parliament asserts its power over monarch, 1689

Parliament crowns Mary (James’s daughter) and William of Orange

Massachusetts colonists arrest Governor Andros, royal councilors

Parliament restores separate colonial charters

1691 Massachusetts charter has royal governor, religious toleration

Salutary Neglect

Smuggling trials in admiralty courts with English judges, no juries

Board of Trade has broad powers to monitor colonial trade

England’s salutary neglect—does not enforce laws of economic loyalty

The Seeds of Self-Government

Governor: calls, disbands assembly; appoints judges; oversees trade

Colonial assembly influences governor because they pay his salary

Colonists still consider themselves British but want self-government

Agricultural South

In the Southern colonies, a predominately agricultural society develops.

The Rural Southern Economy

Fertile soil leads to growth of agriculture

Farmers specialize in cash crops grown for sale, not personal use

Long, deep rivers allow planters to ship goods directly to markets

Plantations produce most of what farmers need on their property

Few cities grow: warehouses, shops not needed

Diversity in the South?

In 1700’s, many German, Scots, Scots-Irish immigrants settle in South

Southern population mostly small farmers

Planters are minority but control economy

By mid-1700s, growth in export trade makes colonies prosperous

Diversity…

The Role of Women

Women have few legal or social rights, little formal schooling

Most women cook, clean, garden, do farm chores

Rich and poor women must submit to husbands’ will

Indentured Servants

In 1600’s, male indentured servants are 1/2 to 2/3 of immigrants

In 1700’s, reports of hardship keep European laborers away

The Evolution of Slavery

Slaves—people who are considered the property of others

English colonists increasingly unable to enslave Native Americans

Indentured servant price rises; slaves work for life, are better buy

Most white colonists think Africans’ dark skin justifies slavery

The Evolution of Slavery

The European Slave Trade

3-way triangular trade network ties colonies, Africa, West Indies:

New England exports rum to Africa

Africa exports slaves to West Indies

West Indies export sugar, molasses to New England

Life in the Early Colonies

Culture and Family

Africans in North America have different cultures, languages

Slaves preserve cultural heritage: crafts, music, stories, dance

Merchants, owners split families; slaves raise children left behind 

Life in the Early Colonies

Resistance and Revolt

Slaves resist subservient position, try to escape

1739 Stono Rebellion—planter families killed, militia defeats slaves

Colonists tighten slave laws, but slave rebellions continue

Section 3:

The Northern colonies develop a predominately urban society based on commerce and trade.

A Diversified Economy

Cold winters, rocky soil restrict New Englanders to small farms

Middle colonies raise livestock, crops; export surplus

Diverse commercial economy develops in New England, middle colonies

By mid-1700s, merchants are powerful group in North

Urban Life

Growth in trade leads to large port cities like New York, Boston

Philadelphia second largest city in British empire; has urban plan

Influx of Immigrants

1700s, large influx of immigrants: Germans, Scots-Irish, Dutch, Jews

Immigrants encounter prejudice, clash with frontier Native Americans

Slavery in the North

Less slavery in North than in South; prejudice still exists

Slaves have some legal rights, but highly restricted

Women in the Colonies

Women have extensive work responsibilities but few legal rights

Only single women, widows can own businesses

Wives must submit to husbands

Witchcraft Trials in Salem

In 1692, false accusations of witchcraft lead to trials, hysteria

Many accusers poor, brought charges against rich

Several victims were women considered too independent

The Enlightenment

For centuries philosophers used reason, science to explain world

Enlightenment—movement in 1700s emphasizing reason, observation

Enlightenment ideas spread quickly through books, pamphlets

Benjamin Franklin embraces Enlightenment ideas

Other colonial leaders also adopt Enlightenment views

En-light-enment

Hobbes v Locke

H = people are selfish and wicked

L = L.L.P., right to overthrow the king if rights not provided


The Enlightenment

Government was a sort of legal agreement between rulers and the ruled

Groundbreaking theory

All we needed was a country dumb enough to try it before the King found out and had everyone drawn and quartered

The Great Awakening

Puritans lose grip on Massachusetts society, membership declines

Jonathan Edwards preaches people are sinful, must seek God’s mercy

Great Awakening—religious revival of the 1730s and 1740’s

Native Americans, African Americans, colonists join new churches

Interest in learning increases; Protestants found colleges

Both movements question authority, stress individual’s importance

Section 4: French Indian War

British victory over the French in North America enlarges the British empire but leads to new conflicts with the colonists.

Britain and France Compete

In 1750’s, Britain, France build empires; both want Ohio River Valley

France’s North American Empire

France claims St. Lawrence River region, Mississippi Valley

By 1754, French colony of New France has small population

French colonists mostly fur traders, missionary priests

French have good relations, military alliances with natives

The War Begins

France and Britain fight two inconclusive wars in early 1700’s

French build Fort Duquesne in Ohio Valley, land claimed by Virginia

In 1754, George Washington is sent to evict French; is defeated

French and Indian War begins—fourth war between Britain and France

Early French Victories

General Edward Braddock’s army ambushed near Fort Duquesne

1755–1756, British lose repeated battles to French, native allies

The War Begins

Pitt and the Iroquois Turn the Tide

William Pitt helps British win battles; Iroquois join British

In 1759, British capture of Quebec leads to victory in war

Treaty of Paris ends war (1763); land divided between Britain, Spain

Victory Brings New Problems

Ottawa leader Pontiac fears loss of land; captures British forts

British use smallpox as weapon; Native Americans greatly weakened

Proclamation of 1763—colonists cannot settle west of Appalachians

British Policies Anger Colonists

Halt to western expansion upsets colonists

Tensions in Massachusetts increase over crackdown on smuggling

Writs of assistance allow searches of ships, businesses, homes

Problems Resulting from the War

Colonists feel threatened by British troops stationed in colonies

Prime Minister George Grenville sets policies to pay war debt

Parliament passes Sugar Act (1764):

duty on foreign molasses halved

new duties placed on other imports

smuggling cases go to vice-admiralty court

 



The First Colonies

The first permanent English settlement in North America is founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.

 

The Business of Colonization

Joint-stock companies—investors fund colony, get profits

In 1607, Virginia Company sends 150 people to found Jamestown

A Disastrous Start

Colonists seek gold, suffer from disease and hunger

John Smith forces colonists to farm; gets help from Powhatan people

(1609) 600 colonists arrive; Powhatan destroy farms; “starving time”

 

The Growth of Colonies

Jamestown Begins to Flourish

New arrivals revive and expand colony; grow tobacco

“Brown Gold” and Indentured Servants

Tobacco becomes profitable; export 1.5 million pounds by late 1620s

Headright system—purchaser of passage gets 50 acres—lures settlers

Plantation owners use indentured servants—work 4–7 years for passage

 

The First African Laborers

First Africans arrive (1619); treated as indentured servants

Late 1600s, owners begin importing costly slaves because

indentured population decreases

colony becomes wealthy

 

The English Pattern of Conquest

English do not live or intermarry with Native Americans

The Settlers Battle Native Americans

Continued hostilities between Powhatan and English after starving time

1614 marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe creates temporary peace

Renewed fighting; king makes Virginia royal colony under his control

 

Hostilities Develop

Former indentured people settle frontier, cannot vote, pay high taxes

Frontier settlers battle natives; tension between frontier, wealthy

Governor refuses to give money to help frontier fight local natives

Bacon’s Rebellion

Nathaniel Bacon raises army to fight natives on frontier (1676)

Governor calls Bacon’s army illegal; Bacon sets fire to Jamestown

 

Section 3:

English Purtians come to North America, beginning in 1620.

In the Beginning…

The Massachusetts Bay Company

In 1630, joint-stock company founds Massachusetts Bay Colony

John Winthrop is Puritan colony’s first governor



Puritans and Pilgrims

Puritans, religious group, want to “purify” Church of England

Separatists, including Pilgrims, form independent congregations

In 1620, Pilgrims flee to escape persecution, found Plymouth Colony (and gosh darnit, do a little persecution of their own!)

Historical myth that they landed @ Plymouth Rock

 

Puritans create a “New England”

Puritans and Pilgrims

Puritans, religious group, want to purify Church of England

Separatists, including Pilgrims, form independent congregations

In 1620, Pilgrims flee to escape persecution, found Plymouth Colony

 

Puritans create a “New England”

“City Upon a Hill”

Puritan adult males vote for General Court; Court chooses governor

Church and State

Civic officials are church members, have duty to do God’s will

Importance of the Family

Puritans generally migrate as families

Community makes sure family members behave in “God-fearing” way

 

Dissent in the Puritan community

The Founding of Providence

Roger Williams—extreme Separatist minister with controversial views

General Court orders his arrest; Williams flees

In 1636 he founds colony of Providence

negotiates for land with Narragansett tribe

guarantees separation of church and state, religious freedom

Anne Hutchinson Banished

Anne Hutchinson teaches church, ministers are unnecessary

Hutchinson banished 1638; family, followers leave colony

 

Native Americans Resist Land Grab

Disputes Over Land

Settlers spread to western Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut

Natives think land treaties temporary, Europeans think permanent

 

The Creation of an American Utopia

“City Upon a Hill”

Puritan adult males vote for General Court; Court chooses governor

Church and State

Civic officials are church members, have duty to do God’s will

Importance of the Family

Puritans generally migrate as families

Community makes sure family members behave in “God-fearing” way

 

Disputes Over Land

Settlers spread to western Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut

Natives think land treaties temporary, Europeans think permanent

 

The Pequot War

Pequot War—Pequot takes stand against colonists, nearly destroyed

 

King Philip’s War

Deprived of land, natives toil for English, must follow Puritan laws

Wampanoag chief Metacom organizes tribes to wipe out settlers (1675)

King Philip’s War fierce; hunger, disease, casualties defeat tribes

 

Settlement of the Middle Colonies

The Dutch settle New Netherland; English Quakers led by William Penn settle Pennsylvania.

 

A Diverse Colony

In 1621, the Dutch West India Company colonizes New Netherland…for $24.00

Settlers from other European countries and Africa welcomed

Dutch trade for furs with Native Americans

Name “bouweries”…Haarlem & Breukelen

English Takeover

In 1664, duke of York (King James II) becomes proprietor (owner) of New Netherland

renames colony New York

later gives part of land to friends, names it New Jersey

 

Native American Relations

Penn’s “Holy Experiment”

In 1681, William Penn founds Pennsylvania on Quaker principles

Quakers ideas: equality, cooperation, religious toleration, pacifism

Pennsylvania meant to be a “holy experiment”

adult males get 50 acres, right to vote

representative assembly

freedom of religion

Penn treats native people fairly; over 50 years without conflict

 

A Thriving Colony

Penn recruits immigrants; thousands of Germans go to Pennsylvania

Quakers become minority; slavery is introduced

Thirteen Colonies

Lord Baltimore, a Catholic, founds Maryland; has religious freedom

James Ogelthorpe founds Georgia as haven for debtors

By 1752, there are 13 British colonies in North America

 

Quick Writing Wrap-up…      

Pretend that you are a poor Englishman(woman) who has been given the opportunity to re-establish yourself in a new American colony.  What would your experience be like in the new world?  What would you need to do in order to survive?  What obstacles do you face?  Where would you want to settle? Explain your answers in a one paragraph answer…

Practice Test…

When investors give money to colonists to establish a new state in the New World, that group is called a

        Joint Stock Company

        Corporation

        Colonial Stock Company

        Integrated Colonial Union

 

Who was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony?

James Oglethorpe

Roger Williams

John Smith

John Winthrop

 

To John Smith's dismay, the settlers in Jamestown directed most of their energy toward

clearing land.

worshiping God.

trading with the Powhatan.

searching for gold and other riches.

 

To encourage settlers to come to Jamestown, the headright system offered them

land.

employment.

profit-sharing.

passage to Virginia.

 

Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion of

Native Americans against the English.

indentured servants against their masters.

frontier colonists against the Virginia government.

African field laborers against English landowners.

 

Who was the founder of Providence in the colony of Rhode Island?

James Oglethorpe

Roger Williams

John Smith

John Winthrop
 
 

 

Shaping a New Nation
Ch 5

Americans adopt the Articles of Confederation but find the new government too weak to solve the nation’s problems.

Quick writing activity…          

The year is 1787.  You have recently helped your fellow patriots overthrow decades of oppressive British rule.  However, it is easier to destroy an old system of government than it is to create a new one.  In a world of kings and tyrants, your new republic struggles to find its place. 

How much power should the states have?  What problems could arise if states are given supreme power?

What checks could be placed on a new government to keep it from becoming too powerful?

Why is it important that the Constitution specifically guarantee certain basic rights?

“A More Perfect Union”

Colonies Become States

People consider self-governing colonies basic political unit

colonists give their allegiance to colony

idea persists when colonies become states

Creating a Gov’t for the New Nation

During the Revolutionary War, the Patriots knew they needed to create a national gov’t to coordinate the colonies’ actions. The challenge after the was to establish what plan of gov't the new nation needed and how to go about creating it.  After much debate, perseverance, and dedication, the US Constitution became the blueprint for the government we know today.  The following quote by statesman and constitutional lawyer Daniel Webster had been quoted by former presidents and speakers at various celebrations of the Constitution…

Quote…       

“We may be tossed upon an ocean where we can see no land-nor, perhaps, the sun and starts.  But there is a chart and a compass for us to study, to consult, and to obey.  The chart is the Constitution” – D. Webster

Creating a Government for the New Nation

Questions to Ponder:

What image does D. Webster use to describe the Constitution’s importance as a guide for US gov’t?

Why do you suppose Presidents and other speakers have quoted Webster’s words?

The Creation of a Republic

Unity Through a Republic

Colonists believe democracy gives too much power to uneducated

Prefer republic—citizens rule through elected representatives

Views of republicanism, government based on consent of people:

John Dickinson: put nation’s good above self

Adam Smith and followers: pursue own interests (Basis of capitalism)

The Creation of a Republic

State Constitutions

Many states limit powers of government leaders

Guarantee specific rights to citizens; stress liberty, not equality

Only white males can vote; in some states must own property

Political Precedents

Previous republican governments cannot be adapted to U.S. needs:

none balanced concerns of state and national governments

Ancient Greece, Rome, Italian city-states did not last

Questions Around the Republic

Representation by Population or by State?

Size, population varies; represent people or states in Congress?

Congress believes it represents states; every state gets one vote

Do you think that a state should be represented by the size of its population or the size of the state?

Questions Around the Republic

Supreme Power: Can It Be Divided?

Confederation or alliance: national government, states share powers

Articles of Confederation—laws assigning national, state powers

National government handles war, treaties, weights, measures, mail

No executive or court system established to enforce, interpret laws

Weakness of the Articles of Confederation

Congress could not levy or collect taxes

Congress was powerless to regulate interstate commerce and foreign trade

Each state had only one vote in Congress, regardless of its size

A two-thirds majority (9 or 13 colonies) was required to pass laws

Articles could only be amended with the consent of all states

No separate executive branch to enforce acts on Congress

No system of federal courts

Create…      

Create an acronym that will help you remember the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation

Ex. S.W.A.T., S.C.U.B.A

Questions Around the Republic

Western Lands: Who Gets Them?

By 1779, 12 states approve Articles of Confederation

Maryland approves when western land claims given to U.S.

Articles of Confederation go into effect March 1781

North West Ordinance

Governing the Western Lands

Land Ordinance of 1785 creates plan for surveying western lands

Northwest Ordinance of 1787—plan for creating territories, statehood

Questions Around the Republic

Political and Economic Problems

Confederation lacks unity; states pursue own interests

Congress amasses huge debt during Revolutionary War

Rhode Island rejects tariff on imports; foreign debt cannot be paid

Borrowers Versus Lenders

Creditors favor high taxes so they will be paid back

Taxes put farmers in debt; many lose land and livestock

Debtors want large supply paper money; creditors want small supply

Questions Around the Republic

Foreign-Relations Problems

U.S. does not pay debts to British merchants or compensate Loyalists

In retaliation, Britain refuses to evacuate forts on Great Lakes

In 1784, Spain closes Mississippi River to American navigation

Westerners unable to ship crops east through New Orleans

Congress unable to resolve problems with foreign nations

Older more established nations did not yet respect the new American nation

Convention and Compromise

At the Philadelphia convention in 1787, delegates reject the Articles of Confederation and create a new constitution.

Shays’s Rebellion

Shays’s Rebellion

1786–87 armed farmers demand closing of courts to avoid losing farms

Shays’s Rebellion—state militia defeats farmers led by Daniel Shays

Many leaders fear rebellion will spread through country

George Washington calls for stronger national government

CHANGE!!!

Call for Convention

5 states send delegates to meeting on interstate trade (1786)

Shays’s Rebellion leads 12 states to join Constitutional Convention

James Madison of Virginia known as “Father of the Constitution”

Convention Highlights

In 1787, 55 delegates meet at Pennsylvania State House

Windows kept shut to prevent eavesdropping on discussions

Washington unanimously elected presiding officer

Proposed Plans of Gov’t      

Two proposed plans

New Jersey Plan

Virginia Plan

Read pg 200

New Jersey Plan

Virginia Plan

Problems and Solutions

Slavery-Related Issues

South wants slaves in population count for House, not for taxes

North wants slaves in population count for taxes, not for House

Three-Fifths Compromise allows 3/5 of state’s slaves to be counted

Congress given power to regulate foreign trade

Cannot interfere with slave trade for 20 years

Great Compromise

Quick Writing Assignment…

In your own words, describe the two plans that were proposed at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.  Then compare these two plans to the one that was eventually agreed upon.  Your answer should be 7-8 sentences. 

Problems and Solutions

Division of Powers

Federalism—division of power between national and state governments

National government has delegated or enumerated powers

Nation handles foreign affairs, defense, interstate trade, money

Powers kept by states are called reserved powers

States handle education, marriage laws, trade within state

Shared powers include right to tax, borrow money, establish courts

Problems and Solutions

Separation of Powers

Legislative branch makes laws

Executive branch carries out laws

Judicial branch interprets laws

Checks and balances prevent one branch from dominating the others

Electoral college—electors chosen by states to vote for president

Creating the Constitution

Constitution can be changed through amendment process

Electoral College activity…

Using the blank map in front of you, color code in the map in accordance of the way that you think the presidential election will play out

554 electoral votes, first president to 278 wins the presidency

How can a president win the electoral vote, but not the majority vote?

Legislative Branch

Lawmaking branch

Composed of a Senate and House of Representatives

Senate- equal representation

H.O.R.- rep. based on population

Power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate trade

Could declare war, raise support armies

Executive Branch

Headed by the president, serve as a check to Congress (legislative)

Carries out nations laws and policies

4 year term, had to be born in America, lived in America for more then 15 years, must be older then 35

Commander-in-chief of armed forces

Does not have to salute anyone

Elected indirectly by an Electoral College

States votes in E.C. is based on combination of Senators and Representatives in Congress

Judicial Branch

Supreme Court

Presides over smaller federal courts

Hear cases involving the Constitution, laws passed by Congress and disputes between states

Famous Court Cases

Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka

Roe vs. Wade

Dred Scott Decision

Marbury vs. Madison

Plessy vs. Ferguson

Amendments Activity:

Using your copy of the Constitution, you will be assigned to read and translate one amendment.  Your translation will be written so that other high-school students would understand it (slang, nicknames, informal language is acceptable!)  You will then draw an illustration of your amendment.  Color is required!  We will then share the amendments with the class.

Amendments to the Constitution

Amendments to the Constitution

Amendments to the Constitution

Amendments to the Constitution

After reading the Constitution, write in the powers that are granted to each Branch.

Activity…                     

Read the constitution and fill out the “Branch Powers Chart”. 

Claiming Powers Activity

In small groups create a two signs labeled “CLAIM” and “DO NOT CLAIM”

I will read out a series of events, laws and instances and each group will have a minute to discuss if their branch of government either “CLAIMS” or “DO(ES) NOT CLAIM” power in that instance. 

Claiming Powers Activity (cont.)

Each group must vote to “CLAIM” or “DO NOT CLAIM”

Each group will then explain its reasons for its decision, and students representing the other two branches will rule on the accuracy of the choice

Scoring is as follows:

Two points will be given for correctly claiming and justifying the claim of power.

One point will be given for correctly voting to not claim a power.

A zero will be given to a group incorrectly claiming or not claiming a power.

Claim Your Powers…the Situations.

 A bill is to be considered requiring automobile manufacturers to install seat belts in all new cars

A case is being appealed from the Texas Supreme Court.

The President has prepared his budget message for Congress

An amendment to balance the budget has been proposed

The President requires appropriations to fund his "Star Wars" defense plan

A treaty involving nuclear arms limitations is being negotiated between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.

A judge has been convicted of bribery

An ambassador's son is arrested for driving while intoxicated in Washington, D.C.

In his campaign platform, the President promised to abolish the 55 mph speed limit.

The Justice Department requests that the 1973 abortion decision (Roe v. Wade) be overturned so that states may set their own abortion policies.

Claim Your Powers…the Situations

11.  Can impeach  the President

12.   Can declare war on another country

13 . Chooses the  Justices

Gets to chose which cases the Justices rule on

Rules on issues such as traffic violations and non-violent crimes

Rules on issues such as murders and violent crimes

Has the power to temporarily replace Representatives during National emergencies or a Congressional Recess

Can expel members of Congress for disorderly behavior

 Can define and punish Pirates on the  high seas

  Chooses the President in case of a tie.

A New Plan of Government

During the debate on the Constitution, the Federalists promise to add a bill of rights in order to get the Constitution ratified.

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Congress could not raise money from the states, and thus there was no budget for the collective governing body

The Constitutional Convention of 1787 was convened

Called to revise the ailing Articles of Confederation

Convention soon abandoned the Articles, drafting a new Constitution with a much stronger national government

Nine states had to approve the Constitution before it could go into effect

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

After a long and often bitter debate, eleven states ratified the Constitution, which instituted a new form of government for the United States

The debate was centered around how much power the federal government should have

Two Founding Fathers who represented opposing sides were:

Alexander Hamilton, who argued for a strong national government with James Madison and John Jay in the seminal Federalist Papers

Thomas Jefferson, who favored a weaker central government and more power resting with individual states.

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Hamilton was a pragmatist who was more cynical about trusting people to do the right thing

Wanted a strong national gov’t, in order to oversee and control the people

People are easy to corrupt and will do wrong if given power

Democrat or Republican?

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Jefferson was an idealist who believed in the inherent good of humanity

Wanted a weaker national gov’t because he believed that people were trustworthy and capable of making decisions that would most benefit the population

Republican or Democrat?

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Imagine that you are charged with the task of setting up a brand new government for a new country. "How much liberty is enough?“

Questions to Ask Yourself….

On what issue are these two philosophical positions opposed?

How is the American government structured to offer a compromise between these two positions?

What was the historical context in which the U.S. Constitution was developed? What factors had the most influence on how these issues of sovereignty and liberty played out?

Do you think the same debate today would have similar or different results? Why?

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

"It has been so often said, as to be generally believed, that Congress have no power by the Confederation to enforce anything, for example, contributions of money. It was not necessary to give them that power expressly, for they have it by the law of nature. When two parties make a compact, there results to each a power of compelling the other to execute it."
—Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to Edward Carrington, 1787

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

"Has it not, on the contrary, invariably been found that momentary passions, and immediate interest, have a more active and imperious control over human conduct than general or remote considerations of policy, utility or justice?"
—Alexander Hamilton, in The Federalist Papers, Section 6, 1788

Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

These men and others spent months deliberating about how much centralized government was the right amount for a functioning democracy

The issue was important because the states had just won independence from a government they considered too controlling, in which decisions were made about the colonists' lives and finances without involving those affected.

There was a strong reaction against a government far removed from those being governed and their concerns, which differed significantly among the colonies

A government that could not even raise enough money to support its own work could do little good for its people.

State vs. Federal Gov’t: Division or Power

State vs. Federal Gov’t: Division of Power…The Right to…

State vs. Federal Gov’t: Division of Power…Denied Rights…

Read State and Branches of Gov’t…

What is the relationship between state and federal governments in the U.S.? How are they similar? How are they different? Who has more power?

What are the advantages of a federal government in which power is divided between national and state governments? What are the advantages of a centralized government (as in France or Great Britain) where all the power rests with the national government?

Why did the "Founding Fathers" ultimately decide on a federal government?

What kinds of laws do states make? What kinds of laws does the federal government make? Why?

What might happen if a state could override a federal law, as Thomas Jefferson once suggested?

What issues or conflicts might arise from divisions of power between state and federal governments? Use examples.

Enlightenment Influences the Constitution

The Constitution: Let’s Get This Party Started Right

Controversies over the Constitution

Ratification (official approval) requires support of nine states

Voters elect delegates to vote on ratification at state convention

Process bypasses state legislatures, who are likely to oppose

Federalists favor balance between state, national governments

Anti-federalists oppose strong central government:

Many felt that it may serve interests of privileged minority

unlikely to manage a large country well

Constitution does not protect individual rights

Concepts Behind the Constitution

The Opposing Forces

Urban centers Federalist; merchants, workers favor trade regulations

Small or weak states want protection of strong government

Rural areas Anti-federalist; farmers fear additional taxes

Large or strong states fear loss of freedom to strong government

The Federalist—essays that defend, explain, analyze Constitution

Anti-federalists read Letters from the Federal Farmer:

lists rights they want protected

Ratification of the Constitution

December 1787–June 1788, nine states ratify Constitution

Federalists need support of large states Virginia and New York

After opposition and debate, Virginia and New York ratify by 1788

The new government becomes a reality in 1789

Bill of Rights

People Demand a Bill of Rights

Anti-federalists demand written guarantee of people’s rights

Federalists promise Bill of Rights if states ratify Constitution

Bill of Rights

Adoption of a Bill of Rights

1791, Bill of Rights, or first ten amendments, ratified by states

First Amendment—freedom of religion, speech, press, politics

Second, Third—right to bear arms, no quartering of soldiers

Fourth through Eighth—fair treatment for persons accused of crimes

Ninth—people’s rights not limited to those mentioned in Constitution

Tenth—people, states have all rights not specifically assigned

Generalizations…

“The Constitution shows more of what the delegates did not want than what the did want.”

Skim through pages 196-201 and find facts that either support or refute this statement

Put your answer/facts into your own words in 1 paragraph (7 sentences)

 

Launching a New Nation

George Washington becomes the first president. President Thomas Jefferson doubles U.S. territory with the Louisiana Purchase. The U.S. fights the British in the War of 1812.

Washington Heads the New Gov’t

President Washington transforms the ideas of the Constitution into a real government.

 

New Gov’t Takes Shape

Judiciary Act of 1789

Judiciary Act of 1789 creates Supreme, 3 circuit, 13 district courts

State court decisions may be appealed to federal courts

 

New Gov’t Takes Shape

Washington Shapes the Executive Branch

Washington elected first president of U.S. in 1789

executive branch is president, vice president

Congress creates State, War, Treasury Departments

Alexander Hamilton becomes secretary of treasury

Washington adds attorney general; these Department heads are Cabinet [Visual]

 

Hamilton & Jefferson Debate

Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict

Hamilton: strong central government led by wealthy, educated

Jefferson: strong state, local government; people’s participation

Hamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has Southern, Western

 

Hamilton’s Economic Plan

U.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private citizens

Plan—pay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume states’ debt

Some Southern states have paid debts, against taxes to pay for North

 

Hamilton & Jefferson Debate

Plan for a National Bank

Hamilton proposes Bank of the United States:

funded by government, private investors

issue paper money, handle taxes

Disagreement over Congressional authority to establish bank

Debate begins over strict and loose interpretation of Constitution

The District of Columbia

To win Southern support for his debt plan, Hamilton suggests:

moving nation’s capital  from NYC to South

Washington, D.C. planned on grand scale; government seat by 1800

 

The First Political Parties & Rebellion

Federalists and Democratic-Republicans

Split in Washington’s cabinet leads to first U.S. political parties:

Jefferson’s allies: Democratic-Republicans

Hamilton’s allies: Federalists

Two-party system established as two major parties compete for power

 

The First Political Parties & Rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion

Protective tariff—import tax on goods produced overseas

Excise tax charged on product’s manufacture, sale, or distribution

In 1794, Pennsylvania farmers refuse to pay excise tax on whiskey

beat up federal marshals, threaten secession

Federal government shows it can enforce laws by sending in militia

 

Commercials!

Imagine that you are responsible for creating a television commercial to represent the political ideas of either the Federalists or the Republicans.  Create a storyboard to illustrate what would appear on the television screen at four different points in the commercial.  Below each illustration, explain your drawing.  Your storyboard should:

Clearly represent important political ideas held by either Federalists or the Republicans

Contain at least one reason a Federalists or Republican should be elected in 1800

Use language that reflects the passionate feelings held by Federalists or Republicans

Be free of spelling and grammatical errors

Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation

Events in Europe sharply divide American public opinion in the late 18th century.

 

U.S. Response to Events in Europe

Reactions to the French Revolution

Federalists pro-British; Democratic-Republicans pro-French

Washington declares neutrality, will not support either side

Edmond Genêt, French diplomat, violates diplomatic protocol

 

U.S. Response to Events in Europe

Treaty with Spain

Spain negotiates with Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain

Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, or Treaty of San Lorenzo, signed:

Spain gives up claims to western U.S.

Florida-U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel

Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic

 

Native Americans Resist Settlers

Fights in the Northwest

Native Americans do not accept Treaty of Paris; demand direct talks

In 1790 Miami tribe chief, Little Turtle, defeats U.S. army

Battle of Fallen Timbers

General Anthony Wayne defeats Miami Confederacy at Fallen Timbers, 1794

Miami sign Treaty of Greenville, get less than actual value for land

 

Native Americans Resist Settlers

Jay’s Treaty

Chief Justice John Jay makes treaty with Britain, angers Americans

British evacuate posts in Northwest, may continue fur trade [Visual]

 

Adams Provokes Criticism

First Party-Based Elections

1796, Federalist John Adams elected

president

Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican, is vice president

Result of sectionalism, placing regional interests above nation

 

Adams Provokes Criticism

Adams Tries to Avoid War

French see Jay’s Treaty as violation of alliance; seize U.S. ships

XYZ Affair—French officials demand bribe to see foreign minister

Congress creates navy department; Washington called to lead army

Undeclared naval war rages between France, U.S. for two years

 

Adams Provokes Criticism

The Alien and Sedition Acts

Many Federalists fear French plot to overthrow U.S. government

Federalists suspicious of immigrants because:

many are active Democratic-Republicans

some are critical of Adams

Federalists push Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 through Congress

Alien Acts raise residence requirements for citizenship

permit deportation, jail

Sedition Act: fines, jail terms for hindering, lying about government

Some Democratic-Republican editors, publishers, politicians jailed

 

Adams Provokes Criticism

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Jefferson, Madison see Alien and Sedition Acts as misuse of power

Organize opposition in Virginia, Kentucky legislatures

Resolutions call acts violation of First Amendment rights

Nullification—states have right to void laws deemed unconstitutional

 

The Death of Washington

Washington dies December 14, 1799

 

Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course

The United States expands its borders during Thomas Jefferson’s administration.

 

Jefferson Wins Election of 1800

Presidential Campaign of 1800

Bitter campaign between Adams and Jefferson; wild charges hurled

Electoral Deadlock

Jefferson beats Adams, but ties running mate Aaron Burr 

House of Representatives casts 35 ballots without breaking tie

Hamilton intervenes with Federalists to give Jefferson victory

Reveals flaw in electoral process; Twelfth Amendment passed:

electors cast separate ballots for president,  vice president

 

The Jefferson Presidency

Simplifying the Presidency

Jefferson replaces some Federalists with Democratic-Republicans

Reduces size of armed forces; cuts social expenses of government

Eliminates internal taxes; reduces influence of Bank of the U.S.

Favors free trade over government-controlled trade, tariffs

 

The Jefferson Presidency

Southern Dominance of Politics

Jefferson first to take office in new Washington, D.C. [Visual]

South dominates politics; Northern, Federalist influence decline

 

The Jefferson Presidency

John Marshall and the Supreme Court

Federalist John Marshall is chief justice for more than 30 years [Visual]

Adams pushes Judiciary Act of 1801, adding 16 federal judges

Appoints Federalist midnight judges on his last day as president

Jefferson argues undelivered appointment papers are invalid

 

The Jefferson Presidency

Marbury v. Madison

Marbury v. Madison—William Marbury sues to have papers delivered

Judiciary Act of 1789 requires Supreme Court order

Marshall rules requirement unconstitutional

Judicial review—Supreme Court able to declare laws unconstitutional

 

The U.S. Expands West

Westward Migration

From 1800–1810, Ohio population grows from 45,000 to 231,000

Most settlers use Cumberland Gap to reach Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee

In 1775, Daniel Boone leads clearing of Wilderness Road [Visual]

 

The U.S. Expands West

The Louisiana Purchase

Louisiana returned to France; Jefferson fears strong French presence

Jefferson buys Louisiana Territory from Napoleon

doubts he has constitutional authority

Louisiana Purchase doubles size of U.S.

 

Lewis and Clark

Jefferson appoints Lewis and Clark to lead Corps of Discovery:

explore new territory, find route to Pacific

gather information about people, plants animals

Native American woman, Sacajawea, serves as interpreter, guide

 

The War of 1812

War breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812.

 

War Hawks Demand War

British and French Rivalries

British blockade or seal French ports to prevent ships from entering

Britain, France seize American ships, confiscate cargoes

 

War Hawks Demand War

Grievances Against Britain

Impressment—seizing Americans, drafting them into British navy

Chesapeake incident further angers Americans

Jefferson convinces Congress to declare embargo, or ban on exports

Embargo, meant to hurt Europe, also hurts

U.S.

Congress lifts it, except with Britain, France

 

War Hawks Demand War

Tecumseh’s Confederacy

William Henry Harrison makes land deal with Native American chiefs

Shawnee chief  Tecumseh tries to form Native American confederacy: [Visual 1]

tells people to return to traditional beliefs, practices

presses Harrison, negotiates British help; many tribes don’t join

The War Hawks

Harrison is hero of Battle of Tippecanoe but suffers heavy losses [Visual 2]

War hawks—want war with Britain because natives use British arms

 

War Brings Mixed Results

The War in Canada

Madison chooses war, thinks Britain is crippling U.S. trade, economy

U.S. army unprepared; early British victories in Detroit, Montreal

Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British on Lake Erie; U.S. wins battles

The War at Sea

U.S. navy only 16 ships; 3 frigates sail alone, score victories

British blockade U.S. ports along east coast

 

War Brings Mixed Results

British Burn the White House

By 1814, British raid, burn towns along Atlantic coast

British burn Washington D.C. in retaliation for York, Canada [Visual]

The Battle of New Orleans

General Andrew Jackson fights Native Americans, gains national fame

Jackson defeats Native Americans at Battle of Horseshoe Bend

destroys military power of Native Americans in South

In 1815, defeats superior British force at Battle of New Orleans

 

War Brings Mixed Results

The Treaty of Ghent

Treaty of Ghent, peace agreement signed Christmas 1814

Declares armistice or end to fighting; does not resolve all issues

1815, commercial treaty reopens trade between Britain and U.S.

1817, Rush-Bagot agreement limits war ships on Great Lakes

1818, northern boundary of Louisiana Territory set at 49th parallel

Agree to jointly occupy Oregon Territory for 10 years

 

Launching a New Nation, Ch 6

George Washington becomes the first president. President Thomas Jefferson doubles U.S. territory with the Louisiana Purchase. The U.S. fights the British in the War of 1812.

Washington Heads the New Gov’t

President Washington transforms the ideas of the Constitution into a real government.

New Gov’t Takes Shape

Judiciary Act of 1789

Judiciary Act of 1789 creates Supreme, 3 circuit, 13 district courts

State court decisions may be appealed to federal courts

Supreme Court

Circuit Court

District Court

County Court

New Gov’t Takes Shape

Washington Shapes the Executive Branch

Washington elected first president of U.S. in 1789

executive branch is headed by only the president & vice president

Congress creates State (foreign affairs), War (military matters), Treasury (manage finances) Departments

Alexander Hamilton becomes Secretary of Treasury

Washington adds Attorney General (Edmund Randolph)

These Department heads are Cabinet

Today, there are ____ members that serve in the Cabinet

Hamilton & Jefferson Debate

Read pg 184 up to “Plan for a National Bank”

Q: how did Jefferson’s and Hamilton’s views of gov’t differ?

A: Jefferson emphasized the rights of states and average citizens.  Hamilton emphasized the national gov’t and the ruling elite.

Q: why did the new nation need to pay off its debts?

A: Demonstrating that the new gov’t was financially responsible would make it more credible in the eyes of creditors, including foreign gov't and bolster the gov't reputation.

Hamilton & Jefferson Debate

Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict

Hamilton: strong central government led by wealthy, educated

Jefferson: strong state, local government; people’s participation

Hamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has Southern, Western

Hamilton’s Economic Plan

U.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private citizens

Plan—pay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume states’ debt

Some Southern states have paid debts, against taxes to pay for North

Contrasting Views of the Fed. Gov’t

Chart on pg 185

What do the terms “loose” and “strict” mean in relation to the Federal gov’t?

Whose view of the fed gov’t was a wealthy person more likely to favor? Why?

How do you think Jefferson differed from Hamilton in his view of ppl and human nature?

Hamilton & Jefferson Debate

Plan for a National Bank

Hamilton proposes Bank of the United States:

funded by government, private investors

issue paper money, handle taxes

Disagreement over Congressional authority to establish bank

Debate begins over strict and loose interpretation of Constitution

The District of Columbia

To win Southern support for his debt plan, Hamilton suggests:

moving nation’s capital  from NYC to South

Washington, D.C. planned on grand scale; government seat by 1800

Plans for a National Bank

Banking

What institution can ppl turn to when they don’t have enough money to pay for something?

How do banks make a profit?

What happens when ppl have trouble paying off their debts to the bank?

How Banks make “Bank”

People use Credit Cards to front money that they don’t have at that moment (large purchases)

Benefits

Keep money in bank so you don’t have a net savings of $0

Reward Points –extra benefits/gifts for using credit card

Detriments

High interest rates (20%!!!!!)

Ex.  $300 (w/ taxes @ 6.5% = $319.5) @ 20% = $383.50

How Banks make “Bank”

Ex. If you buy a stereo for $1,000 on a credit card that charges 18% interest, and you make the minimum payments of $29.37 each month for four years (48 months), you will end up paying $1,409.76 for that stereo!!!!!

The First Political Parties & Rebellion

Federalists and Democratic-Republicans

Centralized debate over the idea of the size and power of the federal gov’t  in relation to state and local gov’t

Split in Washington’s cabinet leads to first U.S. political parties:

Jefferson’s allies: Democratic-Republicans

Hamilton’s allies: Federalists

Two-party system established as two major parties compete for power

“Washington’s Farewell Address” handout

Two Political Parties

Two Political Parties

The First Political Parties & Rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion

Protective tariff—import tax on goods produced overseas, increased American revenue (ppl wouldn’t want to pay more money for a foreign product)

Excise tax charged on product’s manufacture, sale, or distribution for local goods…corn in this case for Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, Pennsylvania farmers refuse to pay excise tax on whiskey

beat up federal marshals, threaten secession

Federal government shows it can enforce laws by sending in militia

Conflict is a microcosm for a larger power struggle…(theme)

Commercials!

Imagine that you are responsible for creating a television commercial to represent the political ideas of either the Federalists or the Republicans.  Create a storyboard to illustrate what would appear on the television screen at four different points in the commercial.  Below each illustration, explain your drawing.  Your storyboard should:

Clearly represent important political ideas held by either Federalists or the Republicans

Contain at least one reason a Federalists or Republican should be elected in 1800

Use language that reflects the passionate feelings held by Federalists or Republicans

Be free of spelling and grammatical errors

Foreign Affairs Trouble the Nation

Events in Europe sharply divide American public opinion in the late 18th century.

U.S. Responds to Events in  Europe

Reactions to the French Revolution

America promised to support French Rev. in Treaty of 1788

Many Americans supported French in idea of a gov’t ruled by the people

French goals similar to American in their Revolution

Federalists pro-British; Democratic-Republicans pro-French

Washington declares neutrality, will not support either side

Edmond Genêt, French diplomat, violates diplomatic protocol

Tries to recruit American support for French before presenting his case for war against British to Congress

U.S. Responds to Events in  Europe

Treaty with Spain

Spain signed treaty with France, but feared a joint U.S.-British attack on land west of Appalachian Mts.

Spain negotiates with Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain

Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, or Treaty of San Lorenzo, signed:

Spain gives up claims to western U.S.

Florida-U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel

Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic

For Those of You Who are Confused…

I thought the land west of the Mighty Miss’ was owned by France…

It  WAS when the land was purchased by Jefferson in 1803

The Louisiana Territory was negotiated to the Spanish in the Treaty of Fontainebleau in 1763 as result of the French Indian War

The Louisiana Territory was handed back to the French in 1800 in exchange for a Spanish empire in Italy

Native Americans Resist White Settlers

Fights in the Northwest

Native Americans do not accept Treaty of Paris (1783, British give up all claims to land rights West of the App. Mts); demand direct talks

In 1790 Miami tribe chief, Little Turtle, defeats U.S. army

Battle of Fallen Timbers

General “Mad” Anthony  Wayne defeats Miami Confederacy at Fallen Timbers, 1794

Miami sign Treaty of Greenville, get less than actual value for land in payments from Am. Gov’t

Tension increases between Britain and America

Native Americans Resist White Settlers

Jay’s Treaty

Chief Justice John Jay makes treaty with Britain, angers Americans

Negotiate land west of Appalachian Mts.

British evacuate posts in Northwest, may continue fur trade, Americans wanted British OUT!!

Cause-Effect: Indians Reject Paris Treaty

Adams Provokes Criticism

First Party-Based Elections

1796, Federalist John Adams elected president

Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican, is vice president (runner-up)

Result of sectionalism, placing regional interests above nation

Nearly all of the South voted for Jefferson

Nearly all of the North voted for Adams

Adams Provokes Criticism

Adams Tries to Avoid War

French see Jay’s Treaty with Britain as violation of alliance with France; seize U.S. ships bound for Britain

Delegation sent to France to deal with Directory (5 headed group, supported by Napoleon)

XYZ Affair—French officials demand bribe to see foreign minister    (pg 195)

Congress creates navy department; Washington called to lead army

Undeclared naval war rages between France, U.S. for two years

XYZ Affair

Adams Provokes Criticism

The Alien and Sedition Acts

Many Federalists fear French plot to overthrow U.S. government

Federalists suspicious of immigrants because:

many are active Democratic-Republicans

some are critical of Adams

Federalists push Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 through Congress

Alien Acts raise residence requirements for citizenship

permit deportation, jail

Sedition Act: fines, jail terms for hindering, lying about government

Some Democratic-Republican editors, publishers, politicians jailed

Adams Provokes Criticism

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

D.R. Leaders, Jefferson and James Madison see Alien and Sedition Acts as misuse of power

Organize opposition in Virginia, Kentucky legislatures

Resolutions call acts violation of First Amendment rights

Nullification—states have right to void laws deemed unconstitutional

Issue eventually died out, but issue over state and federal rights became a major talking point for election of 1800

The Death of Washington

Washington dies December 14, 1799

Jefferson Alters the Nation’s Course

The United States expands its borders during Thomas Jefferson’s administration.

Jefferson Wins Election of 1800

Presidential Campaign of 1800

Bitter campaign between Adams and Jefferson; wild charges hurled

Electoral Deadlock

Jefferson (a D.R.) beats Adams (Fed.), but ties Aaron Burr (a D.R.) 

House of Representatives casts 35 ballots without breaking tie

Hamilton (a Fed.) intervenes with Federalists caucus to give Jefferson (a D.R.) victory

Reveals flaw in electoral process; Twelfth Amendment passed:

electors cast separate ballots for president,  vice president

“Revolution of 1800”

Hamilton v. Burr

Burr was insulted that Hamilton intervened/rigged Federalist vote in order to hand Jefferson the presidency

Killed political career, needed to challenge Hamilton in a duel to revive career

Why was this an acceptable practice during this time period?

 

Jefferson Wins Election of 1800

Simplifying the Presidency

Jefferson replaces some Federalists with Democratic-Republicans

Reduces size of armed forces; cuts social expenses of government

Eliminates internal taxes; reduces influence of Bank of the U.S.

Favors free trade over government-controlled trade, tariffs

The Jefferson Presidency

Southern Dominance of Politics

Jefferson first to take office in new Washington, D.C.

South dominates politics; Northern, Federalist influence decline

The Jefferson Presidency

John Marshall and the Supreme Court

Federalist John Marshall is chief justice for more than 30 years [Visual]

Adams pushes Judiciary Act of 1801, adding 16 federal judges

Appoints Federalist midnight judges on his last day as president

Jefferson argues undelivered appointment papers are invalid

The Jefferson Presidency

Marbury v. Madison

Marbury v. Madison—William Marbury sues to have papers delivered

Judiciary Act of 1789 requires Supreme Court order

Marshall rules requirement unconstitutional

Judicial review—Supreme Court able to declare laws unconstitutional

U.S. Expands West

Westward Migration

From 1800–1810, Ohio population grows from 45,000 to 231,000

Most settlers use Cumberland Gap to reach Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee

In 1775, Daniel Boone leads clearing of Wilderness Road [Visual]

U.S. Expands West

The Louisiana Purchase

Louisiana returned to France; Jefferson fears strong French presence

Jefferson buys Louisiana Territory from Napoleon

doubts he has constitutional authority

Louisiana Purchase doubles size of U.S.

Lewis and Clark [Visual]

Jefferson appoints Lewis and Clark to lead Corps of Discovery:

explore new territory, find route to Pacific

gather information about people, plants animals

Native American woman, Sacajawea, serves as interpreter, guide

The War of 1812

War breaks out again between the United States and Britain in 1812.

War Hawks Demand War

British and French Rivalries

British blockade or seal French ports to prevent ships from entering

Britain, France seize American ships, confiscate cargoes

War Hawks Demand War

Grievances Against Britain

Impressment—seizing Americans, drafting them into British navy

Chesapeake incident further angers Americans

Jefferson convinces Congress to declare embargo, or ban on exports

Embargo, meant to hurt Europe, also hurts

U.S. [Visual]

Congress lifts it, except with Britain, France

War Hawks Demand War

Tecumseh’s Confederacy

William Henry Harrison makes land deal with Native American chiefs

Shawnee chief  Tecumseh tries to form Native American confederacy: [Visual 1]

tells people to return to traditional beliefs, practices

presses Harrison, negotiates British help; many tribes don’t join

The War Hawks

Harrison is hero of Battle of Tippecanoe but suffers heavy losses [Visual 2]

War hawks—want war with Britain because natives use British arms

War Brings Mixed Results

The War in Canada [Visual]

Madison chooses war, thinks Britain is crippling U.S. trade, economy

U.S. army unprepared; early British victories in Detroit, Montreal

Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British on Lake Erie; U.S. wins battles

The War at Sea

U.S. navy only 16 ships; 3 frigates sail alone, score victories

British blockade U.S. ports along east coast

War Brings Mixed Results

British Burn the White House

By 1814, British raid, burn towns along Atlantic coast

British burn Washington D.C. in retaliation for York, Canada [Visual]

The Battle of New Orleans

General Andrew Jackson fights Native Americans, gains national fame

Jackson defeats Native Americans at Battle of Horseshoe Bend

destroys military power of Native Americans in South

In 1815, defeats superior British force at Battle of New Orleans

War Brings Mixed Results

The Treaty of Ghent

Treaty of Ghent, peace agreement signed Christmas 1814

Declares armistice or end to fighting; does not resolve all issues

1815, commercial treaty reopens trade between Britain and U.S.

1817, Rush-Bagot agreement limits war ships on Great Lakes

1818, northern boundary of Louisiana Territory set at 49th parallel

Agree to jointly occupy Oregon Territory for 10 years

 

Growth and Expansion
1790-1825

Ch 10 Changes in manufacturing launch an Industrial Revolution. Slavery and other issues divide the North and South. Andrew Jackson has popular appeal but uproots many Native Americans

Regional Economics Create Differences

 

The North and the South develop different economic

systems that lead to political differences between the

regions.

look through pages 305-308…why did the Industrial Revolution begin in New England?

Industrial Revolution Begins     

Starts in New England

Poor soil to farm, poor weather

On the coast, running rivers make transportation easy

People were willing to leave farms for factories

New England merchants grew wealthy in shipping industry, had capital- money to invest

New Technology

Oliver Evans improved steam engine and developed a mechanical flour mill

1790, Congress passes patent law to protect the rights of those who developed useful machines

Patent gives an inventor the sole legal right to the invention and its profits for a certain period of time

 

Another Revolution Affects America

Changes in Manufacturing

By 1801, inventor Eli Whitney pioneers use of interchangeable parts

Interchangeable parts are identical pieces used to assemble products

Factory system: power-driven machinery, workers with different tasks

Mass production is production of goods in large quantities

Industrial Revolution—social, economic reorganization: 

machines replace hand tools

large-scale factory production develops

result of manufacturing changes

 

Another Revolution Affects America

Great Britain Starts a Revolution

In 18th century, British first generate power from streams, coal

Develop power-driven machines for mass production, build factories

Embargo, War & Tariffs

 

The Industrial Revolution in the United States

After independence, U.S. income primarily from international trade

Embargo Act of 1807, War of 1812 blockade shut down trade, shipping

Americans begin to invest in domestic industries

Tariff 1816- law created to protect overflow of British goods reaching the market after the war of 1812

Would protect American made goods, made British goods more expensive

The Second National Bank

Larger businesses that would stimulate & expand  the economy needed to borrow large sums of money from banks

Charter for First Bank of the United States expired in 1811

Madison (Republican) understood Federalist stance of needing another national bank to coax economic development

1816, Congress chartered Second National Bank of the United States

 

Another Revolution Affects America

New England Industrializes

Samuel Slater builds first thread factory in Pawtucket, RI (1793)

Lowell, mechanize all stages cloth making (1813

Build weaving factories in Waltham, Massachusetts and Lowell

Massachusetts

By late 1820s, Lowell becomes booming manufacturing center

Thousands—mostly young women—leave family farms to work in Lowell

Textile Mill at Pawtucket, Rhode Island

 

New Economic Systems Develop

Agriculture in the North

Cash crops do not grow well in Northern soil and climate

Farms in North smaller than South

In Old Northwest, farmers raise 1 or 2 types of crops, livestock

sell farm products in city; buy other items

Grains do not need much labor or yield great profit: need no slaves

Northern slavery dying out by late 1700’s

most Northern states abolish slavery by 1804

 

New Economic Systems Develop

Cotton Is King in the South

Eli Whitney’s cotton gin allows farmers to grow cotton for profit

Great demand for cotton in Britain, growing demand in North

Poor non-slaveholding farmers go west to cultivate cotton 

Plantation system established in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama

 

New Economic Systems Develop

Slavery Becomes Entrenched

Cotton hugely profitable; by 1820s, demand for slaves increases

Increase in cotton production parallels increase in slave population

Unity and Sectionalism

“The Era of Good Feelings”

Although federalist party had nearly disappeared, many of its programs gained support

Political differences faded away

 

Sectionalism Grows

Many American’s felt loyalty to the region in America that they were from (Westerners, Southerners and Northerners)

Calhoun, Webster, Clay

John C. Calhoun

Planter from South Carolina, war hawk who called for war against Britain in 1812

Opposed national programs such as high tariffs

Believed that they would go against Southern agriculture and slavery interests in the south

 

Calhoun, Webster, Clay

Daniel Webster

Elected to Congress in 1812 to represent New Hampshire

Supported free trade and the shipping interests of New England

Favored Tariff of 1816- protected American trading from foreign competition

 

Clay Proposes the American System

Uniting the Nation’s Economic Interests

Madison’s plan to unite country’s regions, create strong economy:

develop transportation systems; make internal improvements

establish protective tariff

revive national bank

House Speaker Henry Clay promotes plan as the American System:

North produces manufactured goods

South and West produce food, cotton

national currency, transportation facilitate trade

all regions sustain the others making U.S. economically independent

 

Clay Proposes the American System

Erie Canal and Other Internal Improvements

Railroads not yet in common use; first steam engine built 1825

Many states build turnpikes, toll roads pay for themselves

Federal government funds highways to connect different regions

1838, National Road extends from Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois

Erie Canal links Hudson River to Lake Erie: Atlantic to Great Lakes

Other states build over 3,000 miles of canals by 1837

 

Nationalism at Center Stage

Nationalism exerts a strong influence in the courts, foreign affairs, and westward expansion in the early 1800s.

Supreme Court Boosts National Power

Strengthening Government Economic Control

Gibbons v. Ogden: federal government controls interstate commerce

McCulloch v. Maryland: state cannot overturn laws passed by Congress

Limiting State Powers

Marshall Court blocks state interference in business, commerce

Fletcher v. Peck: voids Georgia law violating right to make contract

Dartmouth College v. Woodward: state cannot interfere with contracts

 

Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy

Territory and Boundaries

Nationalism—national interests come before region, foreign concerns

Secretary of State John Quincy Adams guided by nationalism

makes treaties with Britain on Great Lakes, borders, territories

Spain cedes Florida to U.S. in Adams-Onís Treaty 

gives up claim to Oregon Territory

 

Relations with Great Britain

In 1817, the Rush-Bagot Treaty was signed that limited the number of American and British naval ships that could be in the Great Lakes

Provided for the disarmament- removal of weapons, on the US/Canadian boarder

Convention of 1818- set the official boundary between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel

Led to official demilitarization of boarder between Canada and U.S.

 

Nationalism Shapes Foreign Policy

The Monroe Doctrine

Spain, Portugal claim old colonies; Russia has trading posts in California

Monroe Doctrine (1823) warns Europe not to interfere in Americas

U.S. will not interfere with Europe

 

Nationalism Pushes America West

Expansion to the West

Most settlers go west for land, economic opportunity

Possible to change jobs; Jim Beckwourth is trader, scout, rancher

 

Nationalism Pushes America West

 

The Missouri Compromise

When territory’s population reaches 60,000 may apply for statehood

Missouri Compromise—preserves balance between slave, free states

Maine admitted into Union as free state, Missouri as slave state

divides Louisiana Territory at 36°30’ line: slavery legal in south

 

The Jackson ERa

In the years of Jackson’s administration, women, African Americans, and other minorities won the right to vote and participate in the political process.

Essential Question:

 

Differences Between the North & South

Voter Requirements in the early 1800’s

 

Why Increased Democratization

White male suffrage increased

Party nominating committees.

Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential electors.

Spoils system.

Rise of Third Parties.

Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc.)

Two-party system returned in the 1832 election:

Dem-Reps à Natl. Reps.(1828) à Whigs
                  (1832)
à Republicans (1854)

Democrats (1828)

 

Election of 1824

4 presidential nominees from Republican Party

William Crawford

Andrew Jackson

Henry Clay

John Q. Adams

Nobody won a majority of the vote, so election went to the House of Representatives

 

Expanding Democracy Changes Politics

Tension Between Adams and Jackson in ‘24

John Quincy Adams elected president by House with Clay’s support

Jacksonians claim Adams, Clay have struck a “corrupt bargain”

Jacksonians form Democratic-Republican Party, block Adams’s policies

Democracy and Citizenship

Most states ease voting qualifications; few require property

In 1828, numerous new voters help Jackson win presidency

 

Who Are the Candidates in ‘28?

Is Pedigree Important in the Making of Leader?

Andrew Jackson was:

Unsophisticated

Horse racing, card playing

Uncivilized

Indian fighter, dueler, war monger 

Self-educated

Read law books and passed NC bar exam

 

Election of 1828

Jackson runs again against Adams

Republican party had now sub-groups (Demo-Repubs. & National Repubs.)

Nasty/Bitter Campaign

Mudslinging, rallies, kissing babies seen for first time in any presidential election

Jackson wins 

Pedigree vs. “Simple Life:” The Election of 1828

Two Party System

Andrew Jackson- Democratic Republican (Democrat)

John Q. Adams- National Republican

Dirty Politics- Adams’ supports attack Jackson’s family

Wife (Rachel)- accused of being a bigamist

Mother (Elizabeth)- “Common Prostitute”

Jackson – gambled on cock fighting

Jackson attacks Adams – turn WH into gambling parlor, never attacked Adams for his “strange habit”

 

The Age of Jackson

Andrew Jackson’s policies speak for common people but violate Native American rights.

Copy down the following chart and write/fill in two facts that relate to the information provided in each box (bullet form is acceptable)

Use pages 334-344

 

Andrew Jacksons New Style

Jackson’s New Presidential Style

Jackson’s Appeal to the Common Citizen

Jackson claims he is of humble origins, though in reality is wealthy

says Adams is intellectual elitist (which he was)

 

Jackson’s New Presidential Style

Jackson’s Spoils System

Jackson limits appointees to federal jobs to four-year terms

Uses spoils system—replaces former appointees with own friends

Friends become primary advisers, dubbed “kitchen cabinet”

 

Electoral Changes

Jackson s supporters abandoned the “caucus” system- in which political candidates are chosen by committees made up of members of congress

Replaced with nominating conventions- in which delegates from the states selected candidates

Dem’s held first national convention in Baltimore, nominated Jackson

 

The South Protests

John Calhoun called that states had the right to nullify federal law if it was considered unconstitutional

Some southerners called to secede from the Union

Should states have the right to break away if they felt the national gov’t was unconstitutional?

 

A Tariff Raises the State’s Rights Issue

The Nullification Theory

British try to flood U.S. with cheap goods; tariff raised 1824, 1828

Vice president John C. Calhoun calls 1828 Tariff of Abominations  

Thinks South pays for North’s prosperity; cotton prices low

Calhoun devises nullification theory:

questions legality of applying federal laws to states

Constitution based on compact among states

state can reject law it considers unconstitutional

states have right to leave Union if nullification denied

 

Resolution to Nullification Crisis

1832, Congress passes a new, lower tariff

South Carolina legislature passes the Nullification Act, stating that it will not pay for “illegal” tariffs imposed by federal gov’t

Jackson passes the Force Bill in which the military will be called in to enforce federal laws

South Carolina backed down, did not want to start war…yet…

 

Timeline of the Nullification Crisis

 

Removal of Native Americans

Indian Removal Act of 1830

Whites want to displace or assimilate Native Americans

Jackson: only solution is to move Native Americans off their land

thinks assimilation cannot work

too many troops needed to keep whites out of native lands

Congress passes Indian Removal Act of 1830

funds treaties that force Native Americans west

Jackson pressures some tribes to move, forcibly removes others

 

Removal of Native Americans

The Cherokee Fight Back

Worcester v. Georgia—state cannot rule Cherokee or invade their land

Some Cherokee try to continue court fight, minority favor relocation

Federal agents sign treaty with minority; relocation begins

By 1838, 20,000 remain; President Martin Van Buren orders removal

 

Removal of Native Americans

The Trail of Tears

Cherokee sent west on Trail of Tears; 1000-mile trip made on foot

Cherokee are robbed by government officials, outlaws; thousands die

 

Native American Resistance

Indian Rebellion

Sauk and Fox warriors held small rebellion in Illinois, put down by Illinois militia

Seminole Wars

Seminoles were only native tribe to successfully block their removal from the land

Led by Seminole leader Osceola fought settlements along with freed African slaves, American army could not combat guerilla tactics and gave up

 

Andrew Jackson

How does this political cartoon depict President Jackson?

2. How are Native Americans depicted in this cartoon?

3. Do you agree with the cartoonist’s viewpoint? Why or why not?

Dilemma

 

The Indian Removal Act of 1830 has been passed.   You are a member of an Native American tribe who will be relocated to the Indian Territory.  Members of your tribe are discussing rather to accept or resist relocating to this new territory.          

 

Consider the following points

Who are you?  Tell us about your family.  Where do you live? Describe your life.

What was the Indian Removal Act?

Why did whites pressure the government to force the Cherokee out of Georgia?

How had the Cherokee adapted to living among white settlers?

How did the Supreme Court rule on the Cherokee case, and why was Jackson able to ignore this ruling?

 

How did some Native American groups in the Southeast resist removal?

How did the Indian Removal Act affect Native American groups in the Southeast?

Why is the journey of the Cherokee to Indian Territory known as the Trail of Tears?

Will you resist relocation to the Indian Territory or will you make the long and difficult journey?

Be sure to use the following vocabulary in your paper:

Indian Removal Act

Indian Territory

Andrew Jackson

Sequoyah

 

States Rights and the National Bank

Andrew Jackson confronts two important issues during his presidency—states’ rights and a national bank.

 

A Tariff Raises the State’s Rights Issue

Hayne and Webster Debate States’ Rights

Senator Robert Hayne argues Southern view of tariff, states’ rights

Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts defends Union

Jackson believes Union “must be preserved”; Calhoun resigns

Hayne-Webster Debate Activity (Venn Diagram)

 

The Tariff Debate

In 1828, Congress passed a very high tariff on goods from Europe

Shippers in the North supported the tariff bc it would force Americans to buy American made goods

Southerners hated the tariff (called the Tariff of Abominations) bc the South traded cotton

with Europeans and tariff would make goods more expensive

 

Hayne-Webster Debate Reading

 

A Tariff Raises the State’s Rights Issue

South Carolina Rebels

South Carolina declares 1828, 1832 tariffs null; threatens to secede

Congress passes Force Bill: can use army, navy against South Carolina

Henry Clay proposes tariff that lowers duties over 10 years

 

Jackson Attacks the National Bank

Jackson Opposes the Bank

Jackson vetoes bill to recharter Second Bank of the United States

Presents bank as privileged institution that favors the wealthy

Pet Banks

Jackson puts federal money in state banks loyal to Democratic Party

BUS president Nicholas Biddle unsuccessfully maneuvers to save bank

War Against the Bank

Jackson hated the bank and its proprietor (Nicholas Biddle)

Stood against everything Jackson was

Henry Clay and Daniel Webster had a plan to get Clay elected president

Tried to re-up the charter for the bank ahead of schedule (1832), knowing that Jackson would veto it

By vetoing it, Clay and Webster thought that he would loose support from the voting population

 

War Against the Bank

Jackson vetoed the charter, and still remained popular among his constituents

Jackson won reelection in 1832, Van Buren elected vice prez.

Jackson created plan to “kill” the bank ahead of 1836 expiration

Withdrew all federal funds from bank and placed them in smaller state banks

Biddle looses job and closes down bank

 

Jackson Attacks the National Bank

Cartoon Questions…

What is happening in this cartoon? Which person

is Jackson?

What is “the many-headed monster”?

How does Jackson intend to destroy the bank?

Read Van Buren’s comments. Do you think he

was very helpful in resolving the controversy?

Explain.

 

Background of Jackson and the Bank…

President Jackson was determined to destroy the Bank of the United States, as

portrayed in  this cartoon. Jackson, armed with his veto sword, attacks the

National Bank. The bank’s many branches are represented by the heads

branching out from the snake. The man in the top hat in the middle of the

cartoon is Nicholas Biddle, the president of the bank. The man in the center is

Martin Van Buren, stating how much he dislikes dissension.

 

The man on the right in uniform is Major Jack Downing, a legendary comic

character in many Jacksonian cartoons. Jackson killed the bank by withdrawing

government money and depositing it in “pet banks.” He also vetoed the bill

that would have rechartered the bank. Unfortunately the “pet banks” didn’t

use the same sound judgment as the National Bank. As a result, the economy

suffered uncontrolled economic growth from the bad investments of the “pet

banks.”

 

Jackson Attacks the National Bank

Whig Party Forms

People unhappy with Jackson form Whig Party, back American System

Van Buren Deals with Jackson’s Legacy

Jackson’s Legacy

Martin Van Buren wins 1836 election with Jackson’s support

“Pet banks” print bank notes in excess of gold, silver they have

Government demands specie (gold, silver) to pay for public lands

Rush to exchange paper money for specie, banks stop taking paper

Panic of 1837—bank closings, collapse of credit system:

people lose savings, businesses bankrupted

more than a third of population out of work

Van Buren tries unsuccessfully to solve economic problems

 

Van Buren

Van Buren believed in in the principle of Laizzez-faire in which he did little to relieve the depression

People that once supported Jackson now started to turn on Van Buren

Democrats had run the presidency for over 12 years leader up to the election of 1840

Whigs thought they had a good shot to win the presidency

 

The Election of 1840

Whigs nominate William Henry Harrison, hero of war of 1812 , to run for president

John Tyler was Harrison’s VP running mate

Dems. nominate Van Buren

Whigs run brilliant campaigned slogan

“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too!”

 

Van Buren Deals with Jackson’s Legacy

Harrison and Tyler

Whig William Henry Harrison beats Van Buren in 1840 election

Harrison enacts Whig program to revitalize economy

Dies one month later; succeeded by vice president John Tyler

Tyler opposes many parts of Whig economic plan


Manifest Destiny: 1818-1853
ch 12

 

New technologies create links to new markets. Economic opportunity and “manifest destiny” encourage Americans to head west. The U.S. gains territory in a war with Mexico.

Pg 272        

Why was 1825 an important year in the nations efforts to expand?

What effect do you think the discovery of gold in California in 1848 had on the nations westward expansion?

The Market Revolution

Technological changes create greater

interaction and more economic diversity

among the regions of the nation.

U.S. Markets Expand

Changing Economic Activities

Early 1800s farm families self-sufficient; only buy what cannot make

Mid-century farmers begin specialization—raise 1or 2 cash crops

Market revolution—people buy and sell goods rather than make them

U.S. Markets Expand

The Entrepreneurial Spirit

Capitalism—private control of means of production, used for profit

Business capital (money, property, machines) fuels growing economy

Entrepreneurs invest own money in new industries; great loss, profit

U.S. Markets Expand

New Inventions

Inventor-entrepreneurs develop new products

Charles Goodyear creates vulcanized rubber in 1839

Elias Howe patents sewing machine; I. M. Singer adds foot treadle

Factory production of clothing now possible; prices drop by over 75%

U.S. Markets Expand

Impact on Household Economy

Farmers begin using mechanized farm equipment; boost industry output

Technology lowers cost of factory items; workers become consumers

The Economic Revolution

Impact on Communication

1837, Samuel F. B. Morse develops electromagnetic telegraph:

messages tapped in code, carried by copper wire

businesses, railroads transmit information

Morse Code Alphabet:

-.. . ... -.-. .-. .. -... . / - .... . / .. -- .--. .- -.-. - / --- ..-. / - .... . / -- .- .-. -.- . - / .-. . ...- --- .-.. ..- - .. --- -. / --- -. / -.-. ..- ... - --- -- . .-. ...

The Economic Revolution

Impact on Transportation

1807, Robert Fulton’s steamboat goes 150 miles up Hudson in 32 hours

By 1830 steamboats on western rivers cut freight costs, speed travel

Water transport key for moving heavy machinery, raw materials

Erie Canal heavily used, lowers cost; dozens of canals follow

Canals connect Midwest farmers to Northeast and world markets

The Economic Revolution

Emergence of Railroads

1840s, shipping by railroad much costlier than by canal

Railroads faster, operate in winter, go inland

Early train travel uncomfortable for passengers

By 1850s, railroads expand, cost drops, safety increased

New Markets Link Regions

Effect of Regional Links

Improved transportation, communication make regions interdependent

By 1838 National Road extends from Cumberland, MD to Springfield, IL

Growing links lead to development of regional specialties

Southern Agriculture

Most of South agricultural; relies on cotton, tobacco, rice

South lacks capital for factories; money tied up in land, slaves

New Markets Link Regions

Northeast Shipping and Manufacturing

Canals, railroads turn Northeast into center of American commerce

New York City central link between U.S. farms and European markets

Great rise in manufacturing: more, better, less ex

Midwest Farming

John Deere invents steel plow; farmers replace oxen with horses

Cyrus McCormick invents mechanical reaper; 1 farmer can do work of 5

Farmers shift from subsistence farming to growing cash cropspensive goods

Manifest Destiny

Americans move west, energized by their belief in the rightful expansion of the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

Myths and the West

What is a Myth?

Are there any Western Myths?

Land, people, Native Americans, pioneers (think of modern product brand names, advertising art, sports teams, films, articles of clothing

Buffalo Nickel

Sports Teams

Pecos Bill

Disney Cartoon Pecos Bill

Davy Crockett

"King of the Wild Frontier"

The Frontier Draws Settlers

American Mission

Before 1840, few Americans go to Louisiana Territory; many do after

Manifest destiny—belief that U.S. destined to expand to Pacific Ocean

The Frontier Draws Settlers

Attitudes Toward the Frontier

Many settlers try fresh start in West after panic of 1837

Land for farming, speculation important for building prosperity

Merchants seeking new markets follow farmers, miners

Oregon Territory harbors expand trade with Asia; serve Pacific fleet

The Settlers and Native Americans

Effects on Native American Communities

Most Native Americans maintain own traditions even if forced to move

Some assimilate into white culture; a few fight to keep whites out

The Black Hawk War 

In 1830s, settlers in Illinois, Iowa pressure natives to go west

Chief Black Hawk leads rebellion in Illinois, Wisconsin Territory

Sauk, Fox tribes defeated, forcibly moved west of the Mississippi

The Settlers and Native Americans

Middle Ground

Middle ground is area not dominated by Native Americans or settlers

Good relations where settlers need Native American trading partners

Middle ground west of Mississippi, result of 1830 Indian Removal Act

The Settlers and Native Americans

Fort Laramie Treaty

Small numbers of displaced natives fight settlers moving west

1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie between U.S. government, native nations

Native Americans get control of Central Plains

promise not to attack settlers

U.S. pledges to honor boundaries

Settlers increase, deplete buffalo, elk; U.S. violates treaty

Trails West

The Santa Fe Trail

Thousands trek west on old Native American trails, new routes

Santa Fe Trail—busy trade route; Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico

First 150 miles wagons go alone, then band together for protection

Trails West

The Oregon Trail

1836, settlers go to Oregon, prove wagons can go into Northwest

Oregon Trail—trail from Independence, Missouri to Portland, Oregon

Pioneers use Conestoga wagons, push handcarts; trip takes months

2000 mile journey, 6 months time

Division of Oregon

“54 or Fight”

James Polk was Democratic nominee, used campaign slogan

Offered 54th parallel as northern boarder of Oregon Territory

Britain would not accept the 54th parallel, so Polk and England settled on 49th parallel

The Division of Oregon

Most travelers headed for Willamette Valley, Americans outnumbered British 50/7

American’s claimed it was Manifest Destiny to spread from East to West coast

Played an important role in 1844 election

Oregon Trail

Tour of the O.T.

Chimney Rock

Chimney Rock was one of the most picturesque landmarks along the Oregon Trail

signaled the end of the prairies as the trail became more steep and rugged heading west towards the Rocky Mountains

325 feet from tip to base and 120 feet for the spire

Tour of the O.T.

Ft. Laramie

Built by fur traders as Fort William in 1834 where the North Platte and Laramie rivers meet

1849, the U.S. Military purchased the fort and named it in honor of Jacques La Ramie, a local French fur trapper.

It was located along the Oregon Trail to protect and supply emigrant wagon trains. It later became a major link in the Pony Express

Tour of the O.T.

Independence Rock

Named for a fur trader's Fourth of July celebration in 1830, this huge rock became one of the most famous of all Oregon Trail landmarks

1,900 feet long, 700 feet wide, and 128 feet high.

Called the "Great Register of the Desert”

more than 5,000 names of early emigrant were carved on this boulders

Travelers tried to reach this point by July 4th, reached past then, knew they were behind schedule

Tour of the O.T.

Whitman Mission

Founded in 1836 by Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa

The Whitmans, Methodist missionaries, offered religious instruction and medical services to the local Cayuse Indians

Gave care and supplies to wagon parties travelling along the Oregon Trail

Tour of the O.T.

Whitman Mission

When a measles epidemic broke out at the mission in November 1847, many of the Indians were killed while the white newcomers survived.

The Cayuse suspected that the Whitman’s and their foreign religion were the cause of the fatal disease. In retaliation, the Whitman's and eleven other whites were killed by the Cayuse, and the mission was burned down.

 

Trails West

The Mormon Migration

Joseph Smith forms Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in NY

Mormons—religious group, settles in Illinois; clashes over polygamy

Brigham Young, Smith’s successor, leads Mormons outside U.S.

settle near Great Salt Lake, Utah

Migration Statistics

Trails West

Resolving Territorial Disputes

1842, Webster-Ashburton Treaty settles border in East, Midwest

“Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!” slogan calls for annexation of Oregon

1846, U.S., Britain extend boundary west along 49th parallel

Pg 361 read, q 1-3 & Applying Skillz

Expansion in Texas

Mexico offers land grants to American settlers, but conflict develops over religion and other cultural differences, and the issue of slavery.

Moses Austin…the one who started It all…

In the late 1820’s, Moses of Missouri, entered the provincial capital of San Antonio de Bexar

Proposed settling the land with American colonists, loyal to Spain in exchange for empresario fees

Gov’t was suspicious and ordered Austin to leave the country (Mexico)

Texas Annexation

Baron de Bastrop, named Bögel (pronounced “burgle,”), he drew up a formal petition on Austin’s behalf.

Officials were suspicious, but Austin fit exactly in a loophole of Spain’s new constitution, and his colony was approved

He died, left the job to be carried on by his son, Stephen F. Austin.

Texas Annexation

Under the colonization contract, Austin had to vouch for the good moral character of all colonists

Promise of free land led to an influx of squatters

Meanwhile in Mexico…

Texas Annexation

Mexico was wracked with civil wars, between “federalists,” who wanted the various states to keep most power, and “centralists,” who wished to concentrate power in a strong national regime

In 1833, General Antonio López de Santa Anna took power as a federalist, with Texans’ support, he quickly shed his disguise, became a dictatorial centralist, and abolished the Mexican constitution of 1824.

Texas Annexation

COME AND TAKE IT

When the Mexican army stationed at San Antonio recalled a small cannon once lent to the town of Gonzales for Indian defense, the Americans refused to be disarmed and made a flag depicting the cannon with the legend “COME AND TAKE IT “

Texas Annexation

Invasion of the Alamo

Sam Houston left San Antonio to raise an army

Santa Anna sieges the Alamo

Texas Annexation

Sam Houston and Jan Jacinto

The Alamo had already fallen by the time Sam Houston took command of the army

During the long “Runaway Scrape,” in an elaborate plot to destroy Santa Anna with an American army in East Texas Santa Anna failed to follow Houston into the ambush

Houston turned south, destroyed the Mexican forces and won Texas independence at the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21. 

 

Davy Crockett

Fought and died at the Alamo

Legend grew after his death(2 accounts)

Died trying to surrender

Died by bayonet, killed 15 more Mexicans in his final stand

From Tennessee, built reputation as a Mountain Man

Eventually became a politician

Americans Settle in the Southwest

The Mission System

Under Spanish, a few thousand Mexican settlers in present-day Texas

Spanish use Roman Catholic missions to convert Native Americans

Mexico offers mission lands to government officials, ranchers

The Impact of Mexican Independence

Mexico encourages trade between U.S. and northern provinces

Native American groups threaten scattered Mexican settlements

Americans Settle in the Southwest

Mexico Invites U.S. Settlers

To protect territory, Mexico encourages U.S. farmers to go to Texas

Offers land grants to empresarios (agents) who sell land cheaply

Until 1830s, Anglo settlers live as naturalized Mexican citizens

Austin in Texas

Stephen F. Austin, successful empresario, establishes colony in 1821

Old Three Hundred get 177 farming acres or 4,428 grazing acres

U.S. wants lands south to Rio Grande; Mexico refuses to sell Texas

Texas Fights for Independence

“Come to Texas”

Cultural differences arise between Anglos and Mexico:

Anglos speak English, not Spanish

Southerners bring slaves; Mexico abolished slavery

In 1830s, Anglos greatly outnumber Tejanos

Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Anna imprisons Austin

revokes local powers; rebellions erupt, including Texas Revolution

Texas Fights for Independence

“Remember the Alamo!” [Visual]

Santa Anna marches to Texas; Austin tells Texans to arm themselves

Santa Anna storms Alamo, old mission; all 187 U.S. defenders killed

Break down Question:

Why did Mexico and the Texans fight so fervently over the Alamo?

What do you think the Mexican soldiers would have said about the Texan fighters at the Alamo?

How do you think the Texan defenders would have described Santa Anna and his soldiers?

Texas Fights for Independence

The Lone Star Republic

Sam Houston defeats, captures Santa Anna at Battle of San Jacinto [Visual]

Treaty of Velasco grants independence to Texas (April 1836)

Houston becomes president of the Republic of Texas

Texas Joins the Union

1838, Houston invites U.S. to annex, or incorporate, Texas

South favors, North opposes annexation; Texas becomes state in 1845

The War with Mexico

Tensions over the U.S. annexation of Texas leads to war with Mexico, resulting in huge territorial gains for the United States.

Polk Urges War

“Polk the Purposeful”

President James K. Polk favors war with Mexico

believes U.S. will get Texas, New Mexico, California

Slidell’s Rejection

Polk sends John Slidell to buy Southwest, negotiate Texas border

Santa Anna ousted; Mexican government unstable, ignores Slidell

Polk orders General Zachary Taylor to blockade the Rio Grande

Polk Urges War

Sectional Attitudes Toward War

South favors war to extend slavery, increase its power in Congress

North opposes war, fears spread of slavery, Southern control of U.S.

The War Begins

Polk Provokes War

U.S. repeatedly violates Mexico’s territorial rights

Mexican, U.S. soldiers skirmish near Matamoros; 9 Americans killed

Polk sends war message to Congress, withholds facts

Congress approves war, stifles opposition

Kearny Marches West

Polk orders Colonel Stephen Kearny to march to Santa Fe [Visual]

New Mexico surrenders to U.S. without a fight

The War Begins

The Republic of California

1830s, 12,000 Mexican settlers in California; 1840s, 500 Americans

John C. Frémont proclaims Republic of California in 1846

Frémont joined by Kearny, Commodore John D. Sloat’s naval expedition

The War Begins

The War in Mexico [Visual 1]

U.S. has many military victories; Mexican troops have poor leaders

Invasion of Mexico led by generals Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott [Visual 2]

Polk helps Santa Anna regain power, but Santa Anna fights U.S.

America Gains the Spoils of War

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

U.S. and Mexico sign Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848

Texas border set at Rio Grande

Mexico cedes western lands for $15 million

guarantees rights of Mexicans living in territories

War enlarges U.S. territory by about one-third [Visual]

Franklin Pierce authorizes 1853 Gadsden Purchase, sets final border

America Gains the Spoils of War

Taylor’s Election in 1848

Democrats divided over extension of slavery

Whig nominee, war hero Zachary Taylor easily wins election

Gold Rush

According to Pitkin, how did American miners treat the Chinese newcomers?

What is Pitkin’s attitude toward his fellow miners?

The California Gold Rush

The Rush Begins

1848, gold discovered at Sutter’s Mill in California Sierra Nevadas

San Francisco residents abandon city to pan for gold

Gold rush, or migration of prospectors to California in 1849

Forty-niners—gold prospectors—come from Asia, South America, Europe [Visual]

Gold mining

Would you risk going out West to search for gold?

Many people went out West to capitalize on the miners themselves

Taking advantage of the fact that land was undeveloped (overcharging)

Levi Strauss-> why were jeans so popular when they were first introduced?  Why are they so popular today?

The California Gold Rush

Impact of Gold Fever

San Francisco becomes supply center for miners, major port

Gold Rush Brings Diversity

By 1849, California’s population exceeds 100,000

Chinese, free blacks, Mexicans migrate in large numbers

Slavery permitted until outlawed by 1849 constitutional convention

California joins Union in 1850

Pg  376-378

What was early gold mining like?

What were conditions like for miners?

How did mining change over time?

 Ch 10 & 11 notes can be downloaded in Grade 10 Handouts section!


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